Francis Asbury Hammond
Pioneer and Missionary
Nathan W. Adamson, Jr.
David H. Allred & West Hammond
Salt Lake City, Utah
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Long Island (1); The Sea Calls (2); The Whale Hunt
(4); Francis in Irons (5); Francis's Promotion (5);
To the Arctic (6); The End of a Career (7); Back to
Making Shoes (7)
The Brooklyn Saints (9) ; Francis Leaves for San
Francisco (9); Mormon Activity in California (11);
The First Contact with Real Mormons (11) ; A New
Convert (13); Business Activities in San Francisco
(15); Gold Is Discovered in California (16); The
Desire to Gather to Zion (18); The Journey to the
Great Salt Lake (20) ; Miles Goodyear and Captain
James Brown (22); The Arrival (22); An Important
Interview (23); Getting Established (24)
FRANCIS GETS MARRIED 26
Courtship (26); Mary Jane Dilworth (27); The Edow-
ment & Sealing (29); Francis and Mary Jane's First
Home (29); Indian Troubles (30)
FRANCIS AND MARY JANE GO ON A MISSION 31
The First Missionaries to Hawaii (31) ; Another
Covered Wagon Journey (33); From San Pedro to San
Francisco (33); Arrival in Hawaii (34); Missionary
Life of the Hammonds (35) ; Mastering the Language
(37) ; Church Activities (37) ; The Purchase of a
House (45); A New Baby (46); Sister Lewis (48);
More from Mary Jane (49) ; The Honolulu Conference
(50); Opposition (52); Performing Marriages (53);
Lanai (54) ; The Release (55) ; San Francisco to
Santa Barbara (56); Home (57)
THE UTAH WAR AND FRANCIS'S INTRODUCTION TO POLYGAMY . . 58
The Utah War (58); The Move to Ogden (60); Polygamy
(61); Alice Howard (62)
FRANCIS'S SECOND MISSION 65
Murray Gibson (65); A New Gathering Place (66);
Back to Hawaii (68); The Purchase (69); Francis
Reports to Brigham Young (70); Establishing the
THE MOVE TO HUNTSVILLE 72
Founder of Huntsville (72); Settling Accounts in
Ogden (72); Getting Established Again (72); Pio-
neering in Huntsville (73); The Transcontinental
Railroad (77); Family (79); The Loss of Alice
Howard Hammond (79); More Tragedy (81); The Passing
of Mary Jane (81) ; Martha Jesina Marcussen Holmes
(82); Bishop Hammond (82); A New Meetinghouse (83);
Huntsville Industry (84); Francis Loses More of His
Family (85) ; The Weber County Land and Livestock
Company (86); Francis's Last Years in Huntsville
PRESIDENT OF THE SAN JUAN STAKE 88
The Reconnaissance (88); Arrangements for the Move
(89); The Advance Party (90); Return to Huntsville
and the Final Move (93); Implementing the Plans
(94); The Utah Removal Bill (95); Washington D. C.
and a Family Visit (95) ; The Dedication of the Salt
Lake Temple (96); Activities in Southern Utah (98);
The State Constitutional Convention (101); A Party
(102); Statehood (102); The Move to Moab (103); The
End of an Era (105)
END NOTES 108
This modest attempt to give a short biography on the life of
Francis Asbury Hammond was brought about as the result of a
discussion I had with David H. Allred. David is a grandson and I
am a great-grandson of Francis Asbury Hammond. We felt that the
contributions that he made should be recorded so that progenitors
of Francis who come after the fourth generation will be able to
appreciate the great contributions that he made as a pioneer and
church leader during the establishing of Zion in the tops of the
mountains. Much of the information in this small book was common
knowledge to Francis's children and grandchildren, but descendants
beyond the grandchildren may be losing an opportunity of becoming
better acquainted with their prominent ancestor and the heritage
that he left them.
Momentous events took place in the Church and in the United
States at the time that Francis went about his life doing his duty
as a Church member, as a pioneer, and as a business and civic
leader. I have attempted to give some background of these events
as they related to Francis's endeavors.
Francis kept an extensive journal for most of his life, and
some of the Church historians have quoted from his letters and
journal. These journals and letters are kept at the Church
Historical Department and the "Francis Asbury Hammond Collection"
in the Department of Archives and Manuscripts of the Harold B. Lee
Library at Brigham Young University. I have quoted extensively
from Francis's journals and other writings. In some of his own
autobiographical articles, he presented what he thought were the
highlights of his life. It is with these highlights that I have
attempted to spend most of my efforts, although I have personally
studied most of his journal and letters.
But much more detail of Francis's life could be written and
compiled through a more exclusive analysis of his journal and the
other materials and letters in the Church History Department and
the Brigham Young University Collection. Church historians have
already done this to those portions of his journal regarding Church
history as related to his missions to Hawaii. It has been a
valuable source for their research, and Francis was one of the
dominant characters in the establishment of the Church in Hawaii.
It was difficult to always be objective in this account. When
I started studying his journals I found myself emotionally
identifying with him. When one deals with something that is as
personal as religion, he has to try and interpret actions by his
own empathy. I was not able to distance myself from the emotion
that I felt as a descendant of this devoted man. For those readers
who may take the time to read this modest work, they need to
understand that the Church was Francis Hammond's whole life. The
influence of the Church and his relation to it affected every
decision that he made regarding his family and community affilia-
tions. This was an impassioned relationship; and to understand
this stirring alliance, one must be able to appreciate the emotions
that motivated Francis. It is hoped that I have done this to some
I express my gratitude to David Allred for his encouragement
and assistance. We have spent many hours discussing Francis's
life. We have had good times gathering information. We had a
particularly delightful time making a trip to Huntsville. Thanks
to the help of Erma H. Wilson and Nellie W. Newey, Town Historians,
David and I were able to get started in this undertaking. Erma and
Nellie provided us with invaluable information regarding Francis's
residence in Huntsville. Thanks must be extended to my mother,
Hannah Marie Sorensen Adamson, a granddaughter of Francis and to
West Hammond, a grandson of Francis. West has been most helpful in
giving me background on Francis while he was in San Juan.
Additonally, I would truly be ungrateful if I did not recognize the
splendid help given to me by Inez Allred for her editing assis-
-- Nathan W. Adamson, Jr.
In the fall of 1869, Francis A. Hammond, along with 500 other
elders of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, went on
a mission to the United States. The missionaries were to visit
friends and relatives, preach the gospel when possible, and do what
they could to help ameliorate the bitter feelings toward the Church
throughout the country. 1 The transcontinental railroad had just
been completed and a number of dignitaries from the east were
making trips to Utah. This much faster communication with the East
intensified agitation over the polygamy issue. The non-Mormon
merchant firms were charging the saints immoderate prices for their
merchandise. This brought about a boycott of these institutions.
The merchants were also using their resources to inflame the press
in the east against the Mormons. 2 At this time, Francis A. Hammond
was, himself, a polygamist.
Francis returned to his home and birthplace during this
mission, and as he approached Patchogue, Suffolk, New York,
memories must have been swirling around in his mind of all the
things that had transpired in his life since he last visited his
family twenty-seven years before. Since his mother died in 1867,
Francis would not have been able to visit with her on this 1869
trip. Memory flash-backs now returned him to his childhood. His
life had been full of adventure. Although he had kept up corre-
spondence with his family throughout the years, apprehensions of
how his family would receive him and his new misunderstood religion
must have occasionally interrupted his reveries.
Born 1 November 1822, Francis's life was influenced by the
environment and industry of Long Island. He was the fifth of nine
children begotten to Samuel Smith Hammond and Charity Edwards:
Elisha, Edmund, Hannah, Mary Caroline, Francis Asbury, Samuel
Smith, Sanford Bartlett, Elizabeth, and John Fletcher. As will be
noted later, that in naming his own children, Francis obviously
made some of his children name-sakes to his father's family.
Because very little is available regarding his childhood --
although it is known that he read the Bible at an early age, an
examination of the environment in which he grew up along with the
information that is known, an attempt to construct a fairly accu-
rate perception of this early part of his life is now ventured.
The bark Blessing of the Bay was sent to explore the fisheries
around Long Island in 1614 by Governor John Winthrop of Connecti-
cut. This voyage substantiated that there was an abundance of
marine life. It also discovered that the Indians of Long Island
were very dangerous; they grew beans, squash, and corn; but their
main diet came from the sea.
Drift whales stranded on the ocean beach were prized for their
oil and other by-products by the settlers. Right whales, when
spotted from the shore, were hunted, towed to shore and processed.
As the local whaling industry diminished, the whaling industry was
extended to all parts of the world. This was made possible with
the development of the Nineteenth Century whaling vessels. They
became factory ships -- ships that hunted the whales and processed
them into commercially marketable commodities. Sag Harbor, Long
Island had itself a fleet of sixty whaling vessels.
Cattle-raising was the main industry of Long Island, but the
fish industry was certainly an important part of the area's
economy. 3 Both of these industries were to be part of Francis's
life. He learned boot and shoe-making, leather tanning, and saddle
and harness making. As a teen-ager, he went to sea as a cook and
cabin boy at $4.00 a month on a small coasting vessel.
Francis was appreciative of the skills his father taught him
in leather and associated industries. They later served him well.
Since cattle raising was a major enterprise of the Long Island
farmers, Francis was familiar with the industry's problems. Later
in Utah, Francis would be involved in the cattle business on a
rather large scale; and although the problems differed in the two
environs, his familiarity with the cattle and the adjunct indus-
tries in Long Island was propitious to him throughout his life.
Why he did not continue the leather trade with his father is
difficult to determine. He obviously liked to work the trade, but
perhaps the adventure of the sea pulled him away from his appren-
ticeship. If his mother's family were seaman, he may have been
influenced by them. Nibley said, "The romance of the sea got into
his blood." 4 Nibley also said "Had he [Francis] written an account
of his first 25 years it would read like an Horatio Alger novel."
The Sea Calls
According to West Hammond, 5 Francis's parents did everything
they could to dissuade him from pursing his first adventure at sea
on a small coasting vessel as a cabin boy and cook. For the first
few years of his sea experience, his adventures were limited to the
summer months and the encounters of visiting some of the coastal
cities of the United States. This would be a real adventure to a
fourteen year-old boy. Most young men of that day would not have
had any where near this kind of exposure to the world outside of
their indigenous environs . During the winter months he attended
school and continued to assist his father in the shoe and boot
business. He continued to improve upon his skills in tanning
leather and making harnesses and saddles.
The small coasting vessel on which he was signed was probably
a schooner. The coasting trade originally was carried on in all
types of vessels, but the schooner dominated the coastal commerce. 6
The distance between ports would often determine the size of the
coaster used in the commerce. As to the type of vessels in which
Francis originally sailed, it is not known.
After four years in the coasting vessels, Francis was ready
for bigger things. He had a good idea what sea life was like, and
further importuning by his parents failed to deter him in his
quest. In 1840 at the age of 18 he shipped out on the bark White
Cake as an able seaman. His apprenticeship on the coasting vessels
had served him well. It was his goal to become the master of his
The White Cake would be his home for some time. A bark
usually had three or more masts. The foremast and mainmasts had
square sails that ran lengthwise with the hull. 7 A whaling bark
was not made for speed. It was built in such a way as to store
hundreds of barrels of oil and other provisions. Sometimes these
ships and their crews would be at sea for over two years before
returning to their home ports. The crews consisted of twenty-five
to thirty-five men. By the end of the voyage, the provisions left
would probably be hardtack biscuits, dried beef, beans, grain,
etc., provisions lacking in vitamin C. Lack of this vitamin in the
diet of the sailors often made them sick with scurvy. This is the
kind of hardship to which Francis could look forward. As a seaman,
he would have a small space in the forecastle. The bunks were
stacked against the sides. Light was received from a whale oil
lamp. When Francis first went into his quarters he probably
smelled the odor of stale whale oil, mildew, and other odors
associated with the living quarters of men who mostly smoked their
tobacco in pipes and who spent many hours in these small and
crowded surroundings. Fresh air was limited. Even the captains'
quarters at the stern of the ship were small. 8
Francis's associates were apt to include criminals, boys
running away from home, and others who were just in debt and unable
to pay their bills. Associating with this potpourri of society, he
probably learned a great deal about the psychology of men.
This adventure that he enlisted upon himself tells us a little
about the type of man that Francis was. He obviously loved
adventure, was not afraid of hard work, and had laudable goals to
become as proficient as he could in his chosen career. He would
learn to understand men; how to lead them; and although he
basically had a kind and gentle disposition, he learned how to work
with rough and unprincipled people. Occasionally fights would
break out among the crew. Was he ever involved in any of them
himself? Was he ever flogged? It wasn't until 1850 that Congress
passed a law ending the practice of punishing men by flogging. 9
Captain Daniel Fitch would be his captain. The ship set sail
from New London along with the Brig Somerset, commanded by a
Captain Beck. These captains owned the vessels. They started
their whaling in Nu Bay at a latitude of forty degrees south, down
the eastern coast of South American to Cape Horn and the Falkland
How many times had Francis felt the trepidations associated
with a two-hour watch in the hoops around the main mast high above
the deck looking for whales? Each tilt of the ship would be
exaggerated to him in his towering position at the top of the mast.
Sometimes the sensation brought about by the tilt of the ship would
make him sense that he was going to plunge headlong into the ocean.
The Whale Hunt
When a whale was sighted, every crewman knew his job. It was
exciting for Francis when he experienced his first whale hunt.
During Francis's first whaling experience, he was likely one of the
oarsman on one of the whaling boats. Before the hunt, crews of
each boat would train together. Oarsman would row with their backs
to the whale. This helped them keep the rhythm of the rowing; and
it also kept them from being frightened, if inclined, at the size
of the whale when the crew brought their boat within just a few
feet of the beast. The average bark was about one hundred feet
long, and some of the whales would be sixty feet long. So the
whaling boats might be about one third of the length of the whale.
The boats usually had two harpoons: one in each crotch, located on
each side of the bow of the boat. There were two line tubs in the
middle of the boat. One of the oarsman would check the harpoon
line to insure that it was properly coiled. Improperly coiled
lines could be very dangerous to the crew. A common accident was
to have one of these lines that were attached to the harpoon that
was sunk deep into the flesh of the whale wrap around the leg of a
crewman as the whale pulled the whaling boat at great speeds over
the choppy seas . n
Once a whale was sighted, the crews would come alive. The
sailors would remove their shoes in order not to make any noise and
startle the whale. Through experience, whalers could judge about
the distance a whale would resurface after it had submerged. Once
the whale surfaced, the oarsmen would pull with all their strength
until they brought the small craft to within harpoon throwing
distance of the great creature. After the harpoonist had thrown
the harpoon and it sunk deep into the flesh of its prey, the crew
would experience a very fast and dangerous boat ride for the next
several hours as the whale pulled the boat and its crew behind it
at wrenching and dangerous speeds . The ropes that were attached to
the harpoons were wrapped around the loggerhead to keep them from
unraveling too fast . These ropes had to be soaked with sea water
so they would not catch fire from the friction and heat that would
be generated through this tight abrasive contact against the
loggerhead. Sometimes the thrashing whale would get close enough
to the boat that it would break it into splinters, and the crew of
the wrecked craft would have to be rescued by another whaling boat.
When the whale finally gave its last breath, the ship sailed
over and met the whaling boat; the dead whale was pulled alongside
the ship; and then every sailor on the ship pitched in and the
processing of the whale began. The hands had to work fast so that
much of the whale would not be lost to sharks. The tryworks, the
big stove that cooked the blubber, would be hot from the fires; and
when the whale had been totally processed, the crew had the
exhausting job of cleaning up the gurry, a mixture of blood, slime
and grease. It would be all over the ship. The sails and deck had
to be scrubbed until the ship was again clean. But there would
always be the smell of the oil turning rancid in the casks.
Francis never described the whaling experience, but being on
a whaling vessel, he would be well acquainted with the adventure,
work, and challenge of this very dangerous industry.
Francis in Irons
This first whaling expedition lasted for two years. When the
whaling season was over, the expedition hunted seals on the bleak
and rocky islands at the tip of South America.
Near the Falkland Islands, the crew refused an order to go
ashore during a gale and carry the freight from a shipwreck back to
the White Cake. This salvage was for the benefit of the captains.
Francis may have been one of the leaders in the dispute as he and
two others were put into irons and fed bread and water for nine
days . 12
This attempt at salvage might have been an illegal act on the
part of the captains, or it might have been an activity too
dangerous to be profitable. Salvage, according to United States
Law as well as for other countries, is not considered as salvage if
the vessel to be salvaged is moored to a shore or dock. Also, the
crew is entitled to some of the profits from legal salvage. 13 It
would be interesting to know the full story behind this episode.
Later, Francis regained the good will of the captain. He was
made the steward of the vessel and placed in charge of two
prisoners. The chief mate and former steward, Mr. Allen and a
Portuguese sailor respectively, were treated harshly by the masters
while the ship was moored in Nu Bay. They ran away in a new whale
boat and took with them a chronometer, a coast chart, all of the
spice, arms, and ammunition on board the ship. They were chased,
caught, and brought back to the ship in irons. Francis was given
the charge of guarding them. When the ship arrived at Rio de
Janeiro, the prisoners, along with witnesses, were taken to the
American consul. Francis, the other witnesses, and the prisoners
were sent to Richmond, Virginia on board the sloop of war Decatur.
under the command of Captain Farragut. Although not verified, this
is probably the Captain David Farragut of Civil War fame. Francis
and his prisoners arrived in Richmond 5 May 1842.
The prisoners were charged with piracy, but they were acquit-
ted. Since the charges could not be sustained at the trial, it
would be interesting, indeed, to have access to the records of that
trial. Captain Fitch as well as the American Consul in Rio de
Janeiro must have felt that a good case could be presented against
the prisoners or the expense of escorting the prisoners and the
witnesses back to the United States on a navel vessel would not
have been justified. What Francis's testimony did or did not do
for the defense is difficult to determine without the court
records. The speculation, however, is fascinating. If the accused
were caught with the boat, chronometer, and charts, the conviction
should be obvious. However, circumstances that are not reported
could have played an important part in the decision.
To the Arctic
Less than a year later, Francis signed up on another whaling
vessel, the Thames, under the command of Captain Jeremiah Hedges on
23 June 1843. During the interval between the trial and the next
voyage, Francis must have had considerable discussion with his
family. Had he not had abundant experience already in his young
life? One wonders how his mother felt after hearing of some of his
adventures. The sea voyage had been exciting but dangerous. He
was not quite twenty-one years of age. Going to sea in those days
on a whaling vessel was almost like going to war. In fact any sea
voyage in that day was dangerous. Between 1847 and 1853 fifty-nine
sailing vessels were lost in the Atlantic alone, and all on board
those vessels were lost. 14 Some years later, Francis would receive
word that his younger brother, John F. was lost at sea.
Those last good-by's must have been painful for his mother.
And not known to her, she would never see him again. He would not
be returning to Patchogue until 1869. Francis was setting out on
an adventure that would end far differently than even he could
He shipped out from Sag Harbor, Long Island, the famous
whaling port as a boat steerer or boatswain. 15 As a boatswain he
would be supervising the seamanship activities of the ship; he
would be the leading seaman who would be in charge of loading cargo
and be responsible for deck maintenance. He was now a petty offi-
cer, which gave him quarters in the aft of the ship where he would
live and associate with the other officers of the vessel. As a
steerer he would have the responsibility of taking his turn at the
steering wheel of the ship. These duties would give him excellent
experience toward fulfilling his goal of becoming, himself, a
ship's captain. His last voyage gave him valuable professional
experience. This voyage would be even more beneficial to his
career; for now, he would be among the leadership of the vessel.
The last voyage, with its challenges and disagreements with Captain
Fitch did not distract Francis from his goal; he was not discour-
aged with set-backs; he was not disillusioned; he was not bitter
with life. How many hours would he study, and now many hours would
he yet study the science of navigation? He would be getting
experience with the ship's compass, the chronometer, the nautical
almanac, the sextant, the complexity of charts associated with a
long ship's voyage, etc. This was the phase of his seaman's
apprenticeship to which he had been looking forward.
After leaving Sag Harbor, the Thames sailed south to the Cape
of Good Hope at the southern tip of Africa. Shortly after that
Captain Hedges was sent home sick. At which of those ports on the
coast of South Africa they left the captain is not known, but Mr.
Bishop, the chief mate, became the captain. Then they took a
course across the Indian Ocean, onto the South Pacific. The ship
landed in the Hawaiian Islands, formerly called the Sandwich
Islands, in March of 1844 at the spot where Captain Cook was killed
just sixty-five years earlier. 16 This would be the ship's base
during the whaling season. 17 Then the ship and its crew sailed
north to the whaling grounds of the North Pacific and Arctic Oceans
between Alaska and Siberia.
By this time, Francis was skilled in his duties and familiar
with the men he supervised. He knew which ones he could trust,
which ones were the workers. He gained the respect of his fellow
officers. The rest of the crew were likewise trained, and they
were ready to try their skills in the round-up of the whale.
The End of a Career
How many whales the crew had taken by the fall of 1843, only
Francis would know, but it was at this time he had a serious
accident. A great storm came up. The crew struggled to keep the
ship headed into the wind. One of the old sailors who had spent
considerable time at sea was sure the vessel would sink. The
chaplain even saw him praying. It must have been a very perilous
storm, indeed. After the storm abated, this old veteran expressed
his concern in stating that this storm in which they were was the
worst he had experienced in thirty years at sea.
It was during this storm that Francis had an accident. The
crew found him missing and were fearful that he had been washed
overboard. When his shipmates found him, he was unconscious and
bleeding. 18 In Francis's own words, "I was stowing down oil in the
hold of the vessel during a severe gale, and while thus engaged a
barrel of flour headed up inside of a ninety gallon oil cask became
loose from between the decks and fell, striking me on the back." 19
Members of the crew carefully lifted him to the main deck and then
carried him to his state room. His fellow officers nursed him the
best they could. The captain and the chaplain were both afraid
they would have to bury him at sea, a chore that they would hope to
avoid; but if Francis were to die, there would be no way that the
crew could get him back to the Hawaiian Islands, let alone to Long
Island. However, he did live to make it to Hawaii.
When the ship reached Lahaina, Maui, the ship's base port, he
was taken ashore. He was so feeble and ill that he could no longer
continue the voyage and perform his duties. "When I bade good-by
to my shipmates it was their firm belief they would never see me
again alive; in fact I had but little hopes of recovery myself." 20
While waiting to die, he rented a native house, hired a native
boy, and ate native food. He would never forget the boy, Maikai,
who took care of him. His diet of bananas, poi, and goats milk
agreed with him. Francis related that it took him about sixty days
Back to Making Shoes
Shortly after his recovery, he again went into the shoemaking
business. He took an eighty mile boat trip to Honolulu, Oahu.
There he purchased some leather and tools, returned to Lahaina and
set up business. He soon prospered enough that he eventually
employed five journeymen, and Maikai continued to do his cooking
for Francis and five boarders. His customers were the natives and
the seaman. During this time he learned the native language well
enough that he was able to gain the confidence of the indigenous
citizens. He had great confidence in them. He said that during
his experience with them that he never lost a dollar in placing his
trust in them. He stated that others of his customers were of the
"foreign population, consisting of American missionaries, mer-
chants, lawyers and doctors." The islands were prospering. He was
able to receive $20.00 for a pair of "French Calf boots, and he was
generally pleased with the progress of his business. He described
in his own words the islands' industrial and commercial activities:
At this time Lahaina was a great place for the
whaling fleet to call for supplies while enroute to the
then new whaling ground in the Arctic Ocean. Sometimes
fifty to one hundred ships would be in the harbor, or
toadstead, sending on shore hundreds of sailors and
officers for a day of liberty -- half of the crew at a
time, while the others were on board keeping ship. All
these men would spend from $5 to $50 each. Besides this
the ships all had to be recruited with stores and fresh
provisions for the voyage to the Arctic, each ship
spending from $5,000 to $25,000. This made business good
for the ship chandlers or merchants who dealt in ropes,
blocks, chains, etc. It also furnished a good market for
the products of the Islands, such as beans, green corn,
sweet potatoes, bananas, and Irish potatoes, which were
cultivated extensively at Kula, on east Maui, at an
elevation of perhaps 4,000 feet above sea level. This
was an era of great prosperity to the natives financial-
ly. They began to learn the use of money, and were not
over-scrupulous as to the means used in obtaining it. 21
As the reader will note, Francis had an interest in commerce
and industry. He was interested in every detail of the business,
industry, and trade enterprises in his community. He was never
indifferent to the study of these ventures and what could be done
to enhance their growth.
While all of these things were happening to Francis, the
Church was receiving some of its most intense persecution. Joseph
Smith was martyred. The saints were desperately trying to finish
the temple at Nauvoo and concurrently fighting off the persecutors
and mobsters. The call was soon to go out from the Church leaders
for the saints to gather to the Great Basin. Most of the migration
would be by land from Winter Quarters over the Great Planes through
the Rocky Mountains into the place of refuge. However, some, in
the eastern states, followed the suggestion of Elder Orson Pratt:
going by sea was also an acceptable means.
The Brooklyn Saints
Under the leadership of Samuel Brannan, the ship Brooklyn was
chartered, and 238 saints sailed out of New York Harbor on 4
February 1846. This was also the day that the saints began their
exodus from Nauvoo. 22
The ship sailed around the southern tip of South America, into
the Pacific Ocean by way of the Island of Juan Fernandez, on to
Honolulu, Hawaiian Islands, and finally to San Francisco Bay, then
called Yerba Buena. 23
It was when the Brooklyn landed at Hawaii in June of 1846 that
Francis read in the Polynesian of the account of the arrival of
the ship Brooklyn with some Mormons on board and who were under the
direction of one Samuel Brannan. The Polynesian was a government
newspaper and published in Honolulu. 24 Little did Francis realize
that he, one of the Lord's sheep, had heard the Lord's voice
calling. His knowledge of the Mormons at that time was based upon
false reports and that they had an opprobrious reputation.
Francis Leaves for San Francisco
In September of 1847 Francis began thinking about returning
home to Long Island; find him a wife; and with his new wife, return
to Hawaii. He wanted to return to Hawaii because he had learned to
love the people and their land. He also felt comfortable in his
business dealings with them. Francis and the native Hawaiians had
developed a respect for each other that made their business
dealings mutually advantageous. Since he was also an expert in the
maritime industries, he could also use this knowledge to advantage
in his dealings with the sailors.
After Francis sold his business, settled his accounts, and
packed up his tools and supplies, he made calls on his friends. He
made particular reference to a Mr. Forbes. He referred to him as
"the seaman's chaplain." The two of them were good friends. Mr.
Forbes tried to persuade Francis to return to Long Island by way of
Cape Horn so that we would not have to come into contact with the
Mormons on his way back to Long Island. He specifically mentioned
those Mormons on the ship Brooklyn. No doubt he and Francis both
had read the same Polynesian article. However, Francis preferred
the over-land route. It would complete his circumnavigation of the
globe, even though by the time he would arrive home, his trip would
take five years. Because of his adventurous nature, he also
probably looked forward to the escapade of being exposed to the
wild environment of the Great American West.
Francis had attended the Reverend Mr. Forbes 's church for the
past three years, but he did not believe a lot of what Mr. Forbes
said regarding religion. He did, however, have a great deal of
respect for Mr. Forbes. Francis did not have any professed faith
at this time except that he believed in the doctrines of the New
Testament. The following is an indication of his religious convic-
tions at this time:
This Mr. Forbes was a good, kind-hearted man, a good
friend to the poor sailors, who as a class have but few
friends. I had attended on his ministry for three years,
but could not be induced to believe and accept his
doctrines for they did not, to my mind, agree with the
doctrines and principles taught by the Savior and His
apostles as set forth in the New Testament. In fact I
was at this time of my life an unbeliever in what is
called orthodox Christianity; yet I could not but believe
in a God, and believed in prayer, and did sincerely pray
unto Him. In my boyhood in reading the history of Jesus
and His apostles, I had wept because I did not have the
privilege to live in those days, when men spoke and
taught by the power and inspiration of the Holy Ghost.
I was told by the ministers of the different denomina-
tions that all those things were done away and the canon
of scripture was full and no more revelation was needed.
For this reason I remained aloof from all churches,
believing I would be saved if I would lead a just and
upright life, as well outside as inside of any of the man
made churches . 25
Francis sailed for Honolulu on a "two-masted vessel." He
would have to wait in Honolulu for passage to San Francisco.
During the wait, he took a job in the shoe and boot business for
meager wages with a Mr. Woods. He worked for these skimpy wages
rather than remain idle.
During the first part of October of 1847, Francis set sail for
San Francisco on a schooner. 26 Being an experienced seaman, he
usually gave the professional name to the type of ship. Little did
Francis realize, that before the end of the year, he would become
one of those detested Mormons .
Francis gave an excellent description of his arrival in San
Francisco. He was impressed with the harbor.
. . . When we entered the Golden Gate leading into one of
the finest harbors in the world, land locked, as they say
and with capacity sufficient, some say, to moor the naval
fleets of the world, there were no docks or wharfs to
which ships could approach and discharge their passengers
and cargoes. This was done by means of lighters, or
large flat-bottom scows. So after we had come to anchor
we hoisted out our yawl boat, and the captain and three
men passengers, besides myself, got in and pulled to
shore. I was in the bow or front part of the boat, and
as we struck the beach I made a good spring and jumped
ashore without getting my feet wet. On our landing we
found quite a few men with drays, a kind of a low, two-
wheeled one-horse cart, with a kind of platform extending
quite a distance in the rear of the wheels, and raised
but little from the ground. One of these persons stepped
up to me and saluted, and asked me if I wanted my baggage
taken to a hotel. I replied that I did. He asked me to
which one. I replied I was a stranger, and told him to
take me to any respectable place. 27
Mormon Activity in California
Prior to Francis's arrival in San Francisco, a great deal of
Mormon annals had been taking place all over California. On 29
July 1846, about three months before Francis's arrival, the Brook-
lyn arrived in San Francisco. With this big influx of Mormons, San
Francisco became a town that for a time felt the impact of the
Mormon gentility. It took the Mormons some time to prepare for the
wagon journey from San Francisco to the Great Salt Lake Valley. 28
On 29 January 1847, the Mormon Battalion arrived in San Diego.
Part of the battalion reenlisted and performed garrison duty in San
Diego, while the rest started for ,the Great Salt lake. 29
Some of the battalion took advantage of the good wages and
remained for a short time in and around Sutter's Fort, near present
day Sacramento. Just a few weeks after Francis was to be baptized,
a Mr. James Marshall, an employee of Mr. John Sutter, discovered
gold at the sawmill that he and some of the battalion members were
constructing for Mr. Sutter.
With this kind of activity going on, along with a large number
of Mormons temporarily in California, it would be difficult for
Francis not to come in contact with at least some Mormons.
The First Contact with Real Mormons
The man who offered to help Francis with his baggage was
Brother William Corey, a sergeant of the Mormon Battalion. After
a long ride on a rugged road, Brother Corey took him to a "re-
spectable place" -- a boarding-house run by William Glover.
Francis told us that while gathered at the well supplied supper
table, he learned that he was the only non-Mormon in the house. 30
He had feelings of resentment. These were the very dupes he had
discussed with his good friend, the Reverend Mr. Forbes, just
before leaving Lahaina.
Francis listed some of the people who were at the table: John
White, Orlando F. Mead, Thomas Dunn, Meltair Hatch, Orrin Hatch,
Boyd Steward, and Lt. James Ferguson. These were all men of the
Mormon Battalion. They were no doubt boarding together as they
were acquiring the necessary resources that would suffer them to
resume their journey to Zion and join their families.
After supper was over, Mr. Glover invited Francis to spend the
rest of the evening with his family — himself, Mrs. Glover, and a
Miss Elenora Snow. Francis found Mr. Glover to be an intelligent
and amiable host, quite unlike the people that the Reverend Mr.
Forbes had described. During this discussion, all of the topics
associated with the restoration were discussed. Francis, although
never particularly sold on them, used all of the John Wesely canons
to test the gospel knowledge of his host. The Book of Mormon was
explained to him, the Joseph Smith Story was testified of, and the
concept of the need for apostles and prophets in these days was
discussed -- a belief of which the reader is again reminded that
Francis had probed even as a lad. As Francis described this
discussion, he revealed a little more about himself. Francis had
read considerably from the writings of Tom Paine, Voltaire, and
others of the popularly read philosophers of Francis's day. He
must have done much of it during some leisure hours on the ship.
Now, he was told that a church was upon the earth like the one that
Jesus had established -- one with apostles, prophets, pastors,
teachers, and all of the gifts of the Holy Ghost; one to which he
would have liked to have belonged as a youth.
This first meeting with a truly genuine Mormon lasted until
morning. It was a long discussion, but the seeds of the Gospel of
Jesus Christ had been planted in Francis's soul. His beliefs
during his life had developed from a child-like desire in his youth
to be on the earth when there were true apostles of the Lord Jesus
Christ, to some early adult agnosticism, and now back to his child-
like hope in Christ. His experience with religion was much like
most of the Latter-day Saint Converts: the miracles of the New
Testament, along with continued revelation were no longer had or
needed. The Bible was all that was left. In spite of this
searching and not finding, Francis still had hopes that he would
find the true church. After this meeting, new hope had filled his
soul . 31
When the Brooklyn arrived in San Francisco, it must have been
no longer sea worthy 32 because Francis, a few days after his
arrival in San Francisco, purchased its "caboose or cook's galley.
He adapted it into a shoe-maker's shop and living quarters for
himself. Brothers John White and 0. F. Mead worked for him, and
business was good.
Francis related that San Francisco, during his sojourn there,
had a small population: "Mexicans, Mormons, and Europeans." He
observed that the Mormons at that time were the largest segment of
the population and the "civil offices were largely filled by them."
During his stay at the boarding house, Mr. Glover was able to
plant the seed that began Francis's investigation of Mormonism. He
read A Voice of Warning by Parley P. Pratt. He became more
impressed with the doctrines of the Church and with the integrity
of the people whom he had been told to despise. Francis had
difficulty with Joseph Smith being a prophet, in spite of the fact
that he had longed to be in a society motivated and inspired by
such men. He was also having difficulty with accepting the Book of
Mormon. His past intellectual and spiritual experience made it
difficult for him to retreat from the position that the only form
of guidance necessary was from that of the Bible. He also could
not disassociate himself from the writings of Thomas Paine and
Voltair. These philosophical writings planted in his mind doubts
about the Bible; these doubts fostered even more misgivings about
the Book of Mormon and religion in general.
A New Convert
Francis found considerable help in his visits with Brother and
Sister Pell. Brother Pell had been a Methodist minister and Sister
Pell was well versed in the scriptures. He continued to have
inward struggles. However, he began to realize that the Bible
truly supported Mormonism. He was starting to think that the
Gospel as proclaimed by Mormonism really had something. His
doubts, however, continued; and in desperation, he came to the
conclusion that he would ignore religion and just try be an
honorable individual .
This struggle, however, gave Francis a remarkable experience.
In his own words:
In the midst of this great anxiety and perplexity
the Lord was good to me and in a dream showed to me what
perfectly convinced me of the truth of the Bible. In my
dream a personage clothed in white came and invited me to
go with him. I arose immediately and was wafted, in
spirit, through the air for a long distance, when we
alighted in what seemed to be a far off country, and in
the midst of old and ancient buildings much decayed in
appearance. My guide took me inside one of the largest,
where we ascended a long flight of stairs to the upper
story which was all in one room having no partitions.
Here I saw large piles of parchment, and bark of trees.
"This," said my guide, "is what the Bible was compiled
I thought my eyes were opened to read the writings
found in these piles of manuscript, and to my surprise,
I thought there was much left that should have been
placed in the Bible, and much that we find in the Bible
should have been left in the old loft. This dream had
the effect to clear away all the erroneous ideas I had
received from infidel writers. I received it as coming
from the Lord, and I rejoiced greatly, and on the last
day of the year 1847 I was baptized by Elder Petch, in
the waters of San Francisco Bay. I do not remember who
confirmed me. I think it was Elder Samuel Brannan.
Brannan was President over all the Churches on the
Pacific Coast at that time. 33
Francis described Brannan as very articulate, persuasive, and
aspiring. This opinion is consistent with B. H. Roberts' 34 per-
suasion. Francis mentioned Brannan' s visit with Brigham Young in
company with Captain James Brown when they met President Young at
Green River. Having been very well acquainted with Brannan,
Francis was also, no doubt, well acquainted with Brannan 's story of
the meeting at Green River. Brannan must have expressed his
disapproval in the company of Francis and others of the saints
still in California of Brigham Young's decision not to proceed on
to the Pacific Coast. Francis was no doubt very familiar with the
compelling importunings that Brannan must have given to Brigham
Young at that historic meeting. Brannan obviously repeated them
often to the saints in California to whom he had been given charge
by the very prophet of God with whom he had dissension. Francis,
along with others of the saints, had heard Brannan give disdainful
remarks against the Prophet. These criticisms by Brandon probably
made Francis a little nervous about the presiding officer of the
San Francisco Branch. As a new convert to the Church, Francis had
watched Brannan' s countenance fall. He was aware of the spirit of
estrangement from the Church that accompanied Brannan as he was
caught up with the "gold fever." In fact, it was Brannan who let
the word out to the world at San Francisco that gold had been
discovered on the American River. 35
This divergence from Francis's story is done to help the
reader get a feel for the environment for which Francis was being
nurtured as a newly baptized member of the Church. Francis was
able to see through Brannan' s desire for power and wealth that
Brannan aspired for himself as well as the Church. However,
Francis rightly concluded that the Lord's purposes would not be
deferred for a little temporary wealth and worldly power.
However, even after he was baptized, Francis still had
problems with the Book of Mormon. After further admonition from
Sister Pell: ". . .if I was sincere and really honest, and desired
to know the truth, and would go before the Lord and ask of Him in
faith, He would give a testimony of the Book of Mormon. . . ," 36
Having accepted this council, Francis returned to his quarters
-- the "caboose" of the ship Brooklyn -- and knelt as thousands of
Latter-day Saints before his conversion as well as millions since
have done and received his witness. With the Book of Mormon in his
hands as he bowed his head, he fervently prayed. Then the witness
I. . . knelt down by the side of my bunk and asked
the Lord in the name of Jesus, if that book was true and
what it purported to be. I used but a very few words in
my petition, yet before the words were fairly uttered
from my lips a sheet of flame of fire commenced to
descend upon me, not very warm at first, but shock after
shock succeeded till my whole frame seemed literally
being consumed with fire; and yet it was not like the
fire that we use daily, and if we touch it will immedi-
ately give great pain: this was heavenly fire, and filled
me with joy unspeakable. My pen nor tongue cannot
express the peace, joy and happiness that I experienced
at this time. It continued till in the fullness of my
soul I cried out, "Enough, Lord," when it gradually
departed, leaving me the happiest mortal alive. This was
as satisfactory to me as though an angel had appeared and
told me the book was true. No power of man or mortal
could produce such an effect upon my spirit and body;
nothing but the power of God, the Holy Ghost, the
Comforter, could do it. . . . n37
Now Francis had his witness. The dream he had prior to his
conversion was not the converting type of experience that a true
witness of the Holy Ghost would give. Francis still had some
emotional difficulty with some of the members of the Church who
were not living lives consistent with the teachings of the Lord.
But he finally resolved these feelings.
Business Activities in San Francisco
Francis prospered in his shoe business, and he loaned Samuel
Brannan $500.00 which Brannan used on a trading venture into Lower
California. At this time, Brannan was pretty hard pressed for
money. The venture did not turn out too well, and Francis had some
difficultly getting his money back from Brannan. In spite of this
experience, Brannan again tried to encourage Francis to go into
business with him. This time it was to be the real-estate business
in San Francisco. Francis declined Brannan' s further solicita-
tions. But a few months later, Brannan became a wealthy man. Had
Francis cast his lot with Brannan, he, too, would have also become
In spite of Brannan 's persuasions, Francis felt the call and
obligation to join the saints who had come with Brannan on the
Brooklyn and the remnants of the Mormon Battalion to gather to the
Great Basin. Francis told of the conversations that he and Brannan
had. Brannan went through all of the reasons why Francis should
remain in San Francisco. The saints, according to Brannan, would
not be able to sustain themselves in the Rocky Mountains and that
they would eventually have to come to California. He suggested
that Francis would then be able to sell land to the saints at a
profit when they and the leaders of the Church came to Francis
instead of Francis going to them. Brannan had avaricious designs
on his brothers and sisters of the gospel.
However, Francis was aware of the recent history of the
Church. His new friends rehearsed to him all of the trials and
tribulations that the true saints had endured -- their experiences
in New York, Ohio, Missouri, and Illinois. Francis was also caught
up in the spirit of the gathering. He wished that he had been with
the Church from the beginning, even sharing the pain of their
persecutions. The Church and Kingdom in this last dispensation had
been established in the few short years of his lifetime. He was
still a young, single man. He wanted to be in the company of
living apostles. But Francis said: ". . .for if I had not been
blessed of the Lord through visions and dreams I would not have
left that land when I did." 38
During the winter I attended meetings regularly.
There was not many preaching meetings. We had prayer
meetings, or testimony meetings, quite regularly. I was
greatly blessed in attending these, where I could hear
the Saints testify of the great truths of the Gospel, and
how they knew Joseph Smith was a true prophet. I did not
witness any of the miraculous gifts of the Gospel in any
of our meetings as I remember; I did not seek after them
as a sign of the truth, but I did pray for the spirit of
wisdom, and discernment of spirits, to know evil spirits
from good spirits. I also prayed for the gift of
preaching that I might be able to tell my fellow-men how
to be saved. I commenced bearing testimony immediately
after I was baptized. I made it a rule that in every
meeting where an opportunity was given I would rise and
bear my testimony to the truth as far as the Lord had
revealed it to me: this gave me an increase of faith.
I longed to return and visit my parents and kindred in
Long Island, and tell of the pearl of great price which
I had found, believing in my heart that they too would
see it, and embrace it with gladness. This many years
afterwards found to not be the case, for not one soul of
all my father's house has received my testimony. 39
Gold Is Discovered in California
At the same time that Francis was experiencing the process of
rebirth in the Kingdom of God, gold was discovered within one
hundred miles of his residence in San Francisco. Francis was right
in the middle of one of the greatest gold rushes the world has
seen. He described this event as an eye-witness. His description
portrayed this event much like the modern movies have portrayed it.
He told of the "wildest scenes I ever witnessed." Everyone in the
area made an unrestrained dash to the gold fields. Sailors
deserted their ships, men left their businesses, and San Francisco
and surrounding areas became deserted.
Francis related that it was at this time that Samuel Brannan
became wealthy. 40 Brannan had a store at Sutter's Fort. The
discovers of the gold treasure tried to keep the findings a secret,
but Brannan came down from Sutter's Fort and raucously announced
the discovery to the residents in San Francisco. 41 Francis
disclosed how Brannan, through credit, bought large caches of
miner's supplies and charted every available boat possible to ship
these supplies up the Sacramento River to Sutter's Fort. What an
ideal circumstance for Brannan. Was Brannan's announcement of the
discovery of gold a scheme? The timing was appropriate even if it
were not designed.
It may appear to the reader that the writer has belabored
Francis's dealings with Samuel Brannan. In defense of this
emphasis on Francis's association with Brannan, it is well to point
out that Francis was still a very young man -- twenty-five years
old -- but very frugal. Had Francis chosen to continue to do busi-
ness with Brannan, he probably would have been a wealthy man.
Because of his frugality and conservative business persuasions,
Francis would probably have remained in California and hung on to
his wealth; but he might have lost the fellowship of the saints.
Even though Francis received back the investments that he made with
Brannan, Francis did not collect them without some urging. So the
next time that Brannan approached him, Francis was much more
reluctant to cast his lot with this very dynamic and ambitious man.
This was a consequential time in his life. The decisions that he
made would determine his life's course, but the temptations to seek
wealth did not end with his parting company with Brannan.
Francis also was infected by the gold fever. He sold out his
caboose and went south to the Santa Clara Mountains to obtain a
supply of quicksilver. Some methods of gold mining required the
use of quicksilver to gather up the gold. He described the
cautions that he took to secure his equipment from being stolen
during his journey to acquire the quicksilver. He slept with his
horse tethered to him so that his equipment would not be stolen.
He later found out that the quicksilver would not be needed in the
kind of mining that he would be doing.
At the quicksilver mine his curious disposition prompted him
to note the process of smelting the ore. He noted that the ore in
which the quicksilver was obtained was first washed in great iron
pots, then heated in other pots with lids on them until the metal
would melt out. After he satisfied his curiosity about the
smelting process, he purchased twenty-five pounds of the mineral
and returned to San Francisco.
In San Francisco Francis outfitted himself with a pack train
for going into the gold mines . After about ten days from the an-
nouncement of the discovery of gold, he was in the gold fields. He
was associated in this endeavor with two men by the names of
Blanchard and Goss, men whom he knew in the islands and who were
passengers with him on the ship that brought him to San Francisco.
Blanchard joined the Church, and Francis must have had some part of
that conversion; however, Blanchard later drowned in a flood.
Francis made a claim on the famous "Mormon Island. " His claim
was a small area of about twenty-four feet by twenty-four feet. It
was on this small plot that he frequently found nuggets worth ten
and twenty dollars a piece. It was not uncommon for him to mine as
much as three hundred dollars a day. He felt that it was a matter
of just gathering the money off the ground. He said that most of
the gold was small grains -- smaller than "ordinary grains of
wheat." After they washed the gold in the pans or panned it, they
laid "the gold out on flat rocks on buckskin or cotton cloth in the
sun to dry." After the drying process, they blew the dust from off
the gold and then placed the gold in buckskin bags. Francis
recounted that they also traded with the Indians. The Indians
would bring gold to them in exchange for trinkets.
The Desire to Gather to Zion
Near the end of June of 1848, Francis decided to quit mining.
He made appropriate division of the gold assets with his partners
and returned to San Francisco.
In San Francisco with the profits from his mining ventures
Francis purchased the necessary equipment to make the journey to
the Great Salt Lake. This included a "seven hundred government
wagon" and four yoke of oxen. He loaded the wagon with his tools
and a supply of leather along with the regular provisions of
clothing and food.
Francis was now equipped to join the rest of the saints at the
assigned rendezvous preparatory to starting east to the Great
On his way to the rendezvous, Francis camped opposite Mormon
Island on the bank of the river. His equipment was the best and
coveted by many of the gold miners . He was given bids for his
equipment at unbelievably inflated prices. Francis related that he
was sorely tempted to sell. He also was enticed to continue his
mining. He recounted the following:
I soon found that I had not lost all love for gold or the
wealth of this world. Goods of the class I had in my
wagon were in great demand, and I was offered great
profits on my stock; from 200 to 500 per cent, was I
offered. It fairly made my head swim, and I began to
waver in my feelings as to my keeping my word and start
for the valley in July, so I vacillated and went about
looking for the best off for my goods. Satan whispered
in my ear, "Why not remain another year, and trade and
speculate and get rich; and then you can assist the poor
Saints, the widow, and the orphan, and take them up to
Zion, and you will become famous on your arrival there;
besides it is a new and untried country, and the people
already there are hard put to sustain themselves . " In
this manner was I tried, and sorely too. I was in great
distress of mind and could not decide; and while in this
condition one night I went to my bed in great perplexity
of mind, earnestly desiring to know what to do. I had
scarcely fallen asleep when a personage appeared at my
tent door, and calling me by name asked me to come
outside. I arose immediately and stood by his side at
the tent door, when he said to me, "Look up the river."
As I did so I saw instead of water, what seemed to me
pitch or some black substance rolling sluggishly down the
bed of the river. I beheld the multitude digging and
washing gold, paying no attention to the melted pitch,
and the personage said, "Look again up the river." I saw
the same substance coming, but much more rapidly, as it
was this time quite hot; and still the crowd kept at
their labor. Again I was told to look up, when this
pitch was coming down about hip deep and almost boiling
hot, and the people in the diggings now seemed willing to
quit if they could recover what they had spread out on
rocks on their cloths or pieces of buckskin, and while
searching and diving to secure these treasures I was told
to look again up the river, and I saw this substance
resembling pitch coming down the bed from bank to bank
and hot as burning streams of lava that issue from
volcanoes . In my fright I seemed to make a rush for the
banks of the river, and caught hold of the brush which
lined the banks, and thus made my escape. I also saw
quite a number of brethren make their escape in the same
way; but the great crowd was carried away and lost to
In the morning when I awoke I was much disturbed in
my mind, having never experienced anything of the kind
before. However, I still went about looking for a sale
of my goods. Prices were increasing every day, and the
temptation was growing stronger. 42
This was an emotionally and spiritually troubling time for
Francis. He continued to feel the two forces working with him.
The next night he had a repeat of the dream; the third night it was
given to him again.
After the experience of viewing this dream three times,
Francis was ready and willing to respond to the call to gather to
the Great Salt Lake Valley with the rest of the saints and the
Church leaders. There were a number of things that Francis
probably learned from this experience: he mentioned the lesson of
obedience, but he also must have had a greater understanding of how
worldly wealth can be a hinderance to one's salvation.
Francis was able to share with Brigham Young and others of the
Church who were in tune with the prophet the spiritual dangers that
the Church would encounter if it were to gather to California
rather than to the Great Basin. This dream was a revelation that
was given to Francis primarily for his own personal application,
but it also had general application that would help him sustain the
prophet Brigham Young, as well as all of the other prophets of the
Church. Francis was new to the Church and had a respected local
Church leader -- Samuel Brannan -- give him inordinately compelling
reasons contrary to Brigham Young's persuasions to remain in
California and become prosperous. The subtle rationalizing that
the wealth could be used to help the widows and supplement the
Church and Kingdom, was the kind of delaying tactics that the
adversary uses to gain time so that the rest of his purposes can be
implemented. Francis did not give a specific interpretation of the
dream. However, his own account lets his reader know that he knew
the Lord, through this dream, had told him to gather with the
saints. Moreover, there is another implied interpretation: the
deaths that came to the miners from being engulfed by the "sub-
stance resembling pitch" was a spiritual death. It was this
spiritual hazard that the prophet saw at the meeting with Samuel
Brannan at Green River.
The Journey to the Great Salt Lake
Back now to the narrative. When Francis camped on the bank of
the American River opposite Mormon Island, he had let his stock
loose to graze. Now that he had made up his mind to go to the
Great Salt Lake, he started to round up his oxen. He found them
all but a "very fine yoke of lead steers, used as my leaders." He
was very concerned. But once again, the Lord came to his help.
Francis made it a matter of prayer, and then he turned his horse
free, with the "reins loose over the mare's neck." The horse then
took Francis to the oxen. The oxen were behind some brush. He
expressed his gratitude to the Lord, returned to camp, and finished
his preparations for the gathering.
This place of gathering, according to Roberts, 43 was at a
place called Pleasant valley, not far from Placerville and was near
where gold was discovered. It was a logical place for a rendez-
vous. Members of the Mormon Battalion were working to settle their
contracts and accounts with Mr. Sutter. These Battalion members
had such an important share in the early beginnings of the
development of Mr. Sutter's ranch and the development of the first
gold mines. Roberts praises these men for their integrity. 44 They
did not desert Mr. Sutter in spite of the temptations for them to
default on their contract with Mr. Sutter as a result of the
enticement associated with the wild scrimmage for wealth. The
battalion members had mined in their spare time and even shared
their diggings with Mr. Sutter.
After a few days of rest, the rest of the members of the
Church who were to form the company arrived. Francis said that
this company included members of the Mormon Battalion and many of
the saints who had come to California on the ship Brooklyn.
Roberts relates that this group started on the 3rd of July. 45
Francis reported that the plans of the company were to start in the
fore part of July. Apparently the group started as planned.
This group of pioneers would also have to cut a wagon road
through much of the Sierra Mountains. Three of the pioneers went
in advance to mark the route. 46 As they made their reconnaissance,
Francis was struggling to become a teamster. He related in his
journal that on the first day out he had an accident with his
wagon. It overturned, and he seemed to attribute it to his lack of
experience. After help from the brethren in getting the wagon set
aright, he sold his wagon and oxen to a Timothy Holt. Holt agreed
to haul his goods for him. Francis then equipped some pack animals
and joined what he called the "pack company." Now he would be in
advance of the main company just behind the three trail blazers.
Roberts gives the names of the trail blazers: Daniel Browett,
Ezra H. Allen, and Henderson Cox. A short time after the wagon
company started, these men were murdered by Indians. Francis
related the following:
We had not traveled but a day or two on the trail
marked out by our three pioneer brethren when we met some
Indians dressed in some of the clothing belonging to the
brethren who were ahead looking out the road. We soon
came to where our three pioneers had been murdered by the
Indians. It was near a beautiful little spring in the
midst of a heavy growth of fine timber. Signs of a
fearful struggle were apparent where the brethren fought
for their lives. The Indians must have crept upon them
while they were asleep, and attacked them perhaps with
their own arms. A buckskin purse well filled with gold
was found lying on the ground. We buried the bodies as
decently as circumstances would permit, and a rude
inscription was placed on the spot to tell the sad tale.
This sad accident caused a deep gloom to rest upon our
whole camp; it served to make us more than ever watchful
and vigilant . 4V
Roberts refers to this place as "Tragedy Spring."
The group continued their ascent over the mountains and
descended into Carson Valley. At the Truckee River, they stopped
and rested their animals. They had traversed over snow fields,
while cutting out a roadway through stony tracts, precipitous
grades, and difficult canyons.
Here the pioneers noticed some Indians within sight of their
camp, so they replenished their supply of water in preparations for
the long stretch of deseret to the Humboldt river. Francis
recounted that they left camp in the late afternoon. They were
traveling at night, no doubt in order to travel when the tempera-
ture was cool. At about midnight, the company had another
encounter with the Indians.
. . . About midnight we came to where our trail led
through a rocky pass, and as we reached about midway of
the pass there came a shower of arrows from both sides of
the trail. The Indians had preceded us and ambushed here
in this spot, where we were obliged to pass, with the
intention of robbing us of animals and outfit. We put
spurs to our horses and rushed the pack animals and loose
horses ahead of us with all the speed possible at our
command, while the arrows flew into our train as thick as
hail, and continued till we were out of reach. One large
horse belonging to William Muir was killed, and a few
others were slightly wounded. This was all the harm we
received. Not a man was touched by an arrow. We felt to
thank the Lord for our deliverance from what seemed
imminent danger . 48
Francis had certainly had an abundance of adventure during
these last ten years of his life.
The company proceeded on their journey until they reached the
Humboldt River. Francis told of the great thirst that the animals
had, and no attempt was made to hold them back when they made their
bolt to the water. The pioneer's rations ran short. They had to
resort to "hard, dried, 'jerked' beef, with a little gravy made
with flour and water."
Francis also related an experience about his killing a wolf.
He was ahead of the company surveying the terrain for a possible
campsite. During his scouting, he came across a wolf and shot it.
When Francis approached the wounded animal, instead of shooting it
with another bullet, he chose to club it with the but of his rifle
-- a U. S. Yauger; but he broke the rifle's stock. He expressed
his pride at returning to the camp dragging the carcass of the
wolf. He received considerable joshing from the others over this
incident. After skinning the animal, they cooked it in normal
campfire procedures, since they had not had any fresh meat for some
time. However, the meal was most unsavory.
Miles Goodyear and Captain James Brown
The pioneer company continued on without further molestation
until they arrived at Ogden on the sixth of September 1848. Here
the company obtained additonal provisions from Captain James Brown
and Miles Goodyear.
James Brown was the company commander of Company C of the
Mormon Battalion. He was placed in command of the detachment of
the ill and disabled of the battalion who were sent from Santa Fe
to Pueblo. In 1847, Captain Brown and his command proceeded north
to the Platte River and then west to the Salt Lake Valley. They
arrived within a few days after the advance group of Brigham
Young's party. After going on to California, receiving the pay for
the Pueblo detachment of the Mormon Battalion, Captain Brown
returned to Utah. In 1848 he bought the Goodyear Fort from Miles
Goodyear . 49
Miles Goodyear was the famous fur trader and trapper. He
explored the territory around the Great Salt Lake and established
the first homestead in Utah in 1845, just two years before the
Mormons arrived. 50 It was about the time of Brown's purchase of
Goodyear 's property that the group with which Francis was associ-
ated arrived in Ogden. Goodyear would later go on to Southern
California. It was in California that he died in 1849.
During the transactions of the purchase of the provisions,
those members of the Mormon Battalion must have renewed acquain-
tances with Captain Brown and exchanged information and news
regarding the activities of their respective detachments. Francis
was privy to all of this activity. He learned more about Church
history from original sources.
Six Days later on 6 September 1848 Francis and the other
pioneers who had trudged over the high Sierra Mountains and had
crossed over vast deserts -- terrain for which Francis up to this
time was not familiar -- arrived in Great Salt Lake City. Francis
saw the city when it was just a few scattered buildings among the
sagebrush. Francis described the city:
. . . I remember thinking the name was much larger
than the city, which consisted of three mud forts called
the North, South and Middle Forts, enclosing ten acres in
each fort, if my memory is not at fault. The Saints who
had emigrated from the East, and a few from the West,
were all located inside of these forts or enclosures,
probably in round numbers not exceeding fifteen hundred
Francis stated that the "country was very forbidding in
appearance." However, he expressed his faith and determined that
he would do his part in building up Zion.
It appears that a Brother Collins, the cook on the ship
Brooklyn was going west to California at the same time that Francis
and his group were going east to Salt Lake City. There must have
been an encounter of the two groups somewhere between Salt Lake and
California. At this gathering, Francis and Collins probably met.
One might speculate the conversation between them. They had
something in common. Francis had turned his galley into a shoe
shop. Collins also suggested to Francis that when he arrived in
Salt Lake that he take up residence with Brother Levi Riter.
Collins also gave Francis a letter of introduction to the Riters.
This was probably Brother Collins second journey over the route.
Roberts states that the Brooklyn saints migrated to Utah chiefly
between the years 1848 and 1850. Roberts also recounts that
Brannan had two companions with him when he met Brigham Young on
the Green River. How long Brother Collins had been in Salt Lake is
difficult to determine at this time, but he possibly could have
been one of the men who accompanied Sam Brannan and decided to stay
in Salt Lake for a while. Never the less, Francis took up boarding
with the Riters at the South Fort. Brother Riter had gone to
California to get some goods that he had sent by way of the
Brooklyn, but Sister Riter welcomed Francis into the family as a
boarder, and Francis felt like a regular member of the household.
When President Young arrived from Winter Quarters on the
twentieth of September, Francis was introduced to him. He was very
much impressed with the Prophet. He seemed to receive another
witness that he had truly been introduced to a prophet of the Lord.
An Important Interview
Francis also wanted to meet Parley P. Pratt. He was so
impressed with reading Elder Pratt's A Voice of Warning, which he
had read during his investigation of the Church back in San
Francisco, that he approached this meeting with considerable
anticipation. Through the Riters, Francis was introduced to
Brother John Van Cott, who in turn introduced Francis to Elder
Pratt. Francis prepared himself to meet Elder Pratt by dressing
formally for the occasion, but Elder Pratt was threshing beans.
Elder Pratt was in his bare feet, shirt sleeves, and wearing a
home-made straw hat. Francis was a little concerned with Elder
Pratt's state. He still had not weaned himself from the idea that
minister's of the Gospel normally dress more formally.
After Brother Van Cott introduced Francis to Elder Pratt and
gave him a short history of Francis' residence in the Sandwich Is-
lands, Elder Pratt, stopped what he was doing and began discussing
how the Islanders were of the House Israel . In spite of this
informal setting, Francis found the discussion most inspirational,
and he was more impressed than ever with this great prophet and
scholar. Francis feasted upon this spiritual food as served by
this modern apostle until near the end of the day. Then he was
invited into tea. It was at this point that Francis received a
real jolt. Up to this time, he had not heard of the Church's
practice of plural marriage.
After being introduced to Elder Pratt's several wives, Francis
became confused because each one of them were introduced to him as
Sister Pratt. At first he concluded that they were all sisters of
Elder Pratt, but the numbers troubled him. When he got back home,
Francis asked Sister Riter about Elder Pratt's family. It was at
this time that Francis was told that all these Sister Pratts were
Elder Pratt's wives. This was a real shock. He certainly had not
been prepared for this. Sister Riter, however, like Sister Pell,
came to his aid. She reasoned with him and taught him and bore her
testimony to him that plural marriage was a correct and inspired
doctrine of the restored Church. Sister Riter gave him the same
advice that Sister Pell had given him: she advised Francis to ask
the Lord. Again, the Lord awarded him with a witness, and he was
Shortly after this experience, Francis was given a Patriarchal
Blessing (October 1, 1848) by John Smith, the Church Patriarch and
also bought a log house from Brother Horace Alexander, "located
just north of the east gate of the South Fort." He set up his shoe
making business and again hired Brothers John White and 0. F. Mead,
the two Brothers who worked for him in San Francisco in the old
caboose. Although he does not mention it, these two brothers must
have been in the same pioneer company coming from San Francisco as
Francis depicted the winter of 1848-9 in Salt Lake City as one
of extreme frugality and resourcefulness on the part of the saints.
In spite of the crickets consuming a part of the crops of 1848, the
food harvest was abundant, but the saints still had to go on
rations because of the large influx of people coming into the
valley from Winter Quarters during the fall of that year. 52
Although experiencing such meager sustenance, Francis related
in his diary that the saints were very healthy. Their social life
consisted of parties and well attended meetings that were enriched
by the Holy Spirit. All of the gifts of the spirit were present,
including the speaking in tongues and prophesying. He particularly
noted the lack of pride among the settlers. They expressed
complete confidence in Brigham Young.
Francis experienced the drama of Brigham Young coming into the
valley with his company of saints from Winter Quarters on the 20th
of September. The prophet's abilities were enhanced by the Lord so
that all of the affairs of the Church could be conducted along with
overseeing this great migration of thousands of impoverished
members of the Church. He noted that some of the saints were
becoming a little nervous as news of the wealth in California were
reported by the members of the Mormon Battalion. Francis ended his
account with this statement: "President Young, against all human
foresight, boldly counseled the Elders to stay at home and
cultivate their farms, and promised that those who would do so
would be able to buy those who went to the mines. 53 Francis had
personal experience with the temptations of the gold fields, but he
had also had the witness, both in the gold fields and in the
presence of the prophet of the Lord, that spiritual death was an
ever present danger to those who left the work of the Lord to serve
FRANCIS GETS MARRIED
Just a little over two weeks after his twenty-sixth birthday,
Francis married Mary Jane Dilworth. Francis was impressed with the
culture, refinement, and general comportment of this very charming
young lady. In spite of the frugal resources of the saints' during
the winter of 1848, they enjoyed many social activities. These
activities included study sessions on the Book of Mormon and
activities with modest refreshments that the limited pantry
supplies afforded. One can imagine the conversations that
transpired among the members of the Church in these modest environs
-- crude but warm log cabins and temporary domiciles. The dialogue
at these gatherings included the experiences of traversing a half
a continent, the last days of Nauvoo, the blessings of the
endowment and sacrifice that the saints had made to complete the
Nauvoo Temple, some of the activities of the apostates, personal
experiences with which many of these former citizens of Nauvoo had
with the Prophet Joseph Smith, the crossing of the Mississippi
River, the mustering of the Mormon Battalion, the desire of many of
the saints to go on to California, the eyewitness account of those
who observed the meeting between Samuel Brannan and Brigham Young
at Greenriver, the feelings of those who were the first to enter
the valley, the encounter with the crickets, etc. Francis listened
with absorbed attention. He excitedly told of his own experiences
in the gold fields, with Samuel Brannan, the temptations of
remaining in California along with the wonderful witness that he
had of the Lord revealing to him in a most remarkable way that the
saints' best course was to gather where the prophet told them to
gather -- in the valleys of the Great Basin. It was at one of
these socials that this lovely young lady, Mary Jane Dilworth,
caught the eye of a young man whose life to this time had been full
of adventure and inspiration.
After admiring Mary Jane, Francis found out where she lived,
obtained a white horse, and went calling on her. When he knocked
on the door, he was greeted by her mother. Sister Dilworth invited
Francis in, called to Mary Jane, and presented her to Francis.
Francis introduced himself to his future wife, informed her that he
was a recent convert to the Church, and that his most recent
residence prior to his coming to Salt Lake was San Francisco. He
expressed to her his esteem for her and asked her to be his wife.
This was quite a shock to Mary Jane. This proposal came to
her from a man to whom she had never been introduced. She had
heard him, however, bear his testimony in the meetings held during
that winter. That was the only acquaintance that she had with
Mary Jane through her amazement asked Francis to give her some
time to think about this momentous decision that had been thrust
upon her without even any premonition. It was true that in those
pioneer times, marriage arrangements were brought about rather
expeditiously because of the urgency of establishing families and
building up Zion, but this decision was one that would take some
thinking about .
The Church taught that exaltation would not be complete unless
members entered into this sacred covenant of marriage. Mary Jane
was probably more conscious of this requirement than was Francis.
She had been in Nauvoo when the Nauvoo Temple was dedicated and
many of the sacred endowment and sealing ordinances were performed.
This sacred ordinance was the topic of discussion in private
conversations, in sacrament meetings, and in conferences. Although
she was too young at the time to participate in those holy
ordinances, she felt the spirit of exhilaration experienced by all
of the town's citizens who had participated in the building of that
sacred edifice at such great sacrifice and had received the
spiritual blessings that were conferred there. The saints had
completed the building, knowing that they would be able to use it
for only a few months . Mary Jane felt the force of these events
associated with the Mormon reverence for the marriage covenant.
Yet, she had turned down other opportunities to wed.
After Francis had gone, her mother encouraged her to accept
Francis's proposal. Sister Dilworth was impressed with him. Were
not almost all Latter-day saints in the position of ceasing to be
"strangers and foreigners but fellow citizens with the saints and
of the household of God" as Paul would say? 54 No doubt Sister
Dilworth had also heard the testimony of this earnest young man.
As pointed out in an earlier chapter, Francis had made good use of
his time and had studied appropriate books. Sister Dilworth felt
that he was properly educated and behaved with fitting decorum.
Francis had arrived in the city not totally destitute. He had
saved his money while in the shoe business in San Francisco and in
the Islands. He had prospered, although briefly, in the goldfield-
s. Now he had set up, what appeared to be a proper and respectable
business. It is not likely that Sister Dilworth would be throwing
her precious daughter to a wolf.
Sister Dilworth told her daughter that she thought that this
young man would return, and he did. He returned about an hour
later. After Mary Jane accepted the proposal of marriage as a
result of the advice given to her by her mother, Francis informed
Mary Jane that he had made arrangements to be married in a week and
that Apostle Heber C. Kimball would perform the ceremony. 55 So on
17 November 1848, Francis Asbury Hammond, age twenty- six married
Mary Jane Dilworth, age seventeen.
Mary Jane Dilworth
Mary Jane Dilworth was born 29 July 1831 in Uwchland, Chester
County, Pennsylvania. Her father was Caleb Dilworth and her mother
was Eliza Wollerton. She came from a family of gentility and God-
fearing tenet. The Dilworths without Caleb moved to Nauvoo, and it
was in Nauvoo that Mary Jane was baptized. Caleb, Mary Jane's
father, never was baptized. This ordinance was received by Mary
Jane in the Mississippi River in 1844. The family shared in the
persecutions in Nauvoo and with the majority of the saints and
tarried at Winter Quarters preparing for the great migration to the
Great Salt Lake Valley. While in Winter Quarters, Mary Jane taught
school in a "little rock house."
Mary Jane and her sister Ann Dilworth Bringhurst started from
Winter Quarters for Salt Lake on 17 June 1847. Near Grand Island,
Mary Jane was set apart by Brigham Young who was returning to
Winter Quarters from the Salt Lake Valley, to teach school at the
fort in Salt Lake. 56 Brigham Young had observed Mary Jane amusing
and tending a group of children. He was very impressed with her
ability to keep the children's attention as she taught them the
ABC's through rhyme and pictures. It was at this time that he told
her that her mission in Salt Lake would be to start a school for
the younger children. She arrived in Salt Lake on 2 October 1847,
about a year before Francis. True to her calling by Brigham Young
she opened the first school in the new territory. The first school
was held in a tent a few weeks after she arrived from Winter Quar-
ters. The furniture in the first school included some logs and a
table. Mary Jane's sister, Maria Dilworth Nebeker, was one of her
first students, and she described the event as follows:
I attended the first school in Utah taught by my sister,
Mary Jane, in a small round tent seated with logs. The
school was opened just three weeks after our arrival in
the valley. The first morning we gathered before the
door of the tent, and in the midst of our play, my sister
called and said, "Come Children, come; come we will begin
now." There were just a few of us, I think only nine or
ten. One of the brethren came in, and opened the school
with prayer. I remember one thing he said, it was to the
effect that we should be good children and he ask God
that our school would be so blessed that we all should
have his holy light to guide us into all truth. The
first day, Mary Jane taught us the 23rd Psalm, and we
sang much, and played more." 57
Several months later the school was moved into a log enclosure
constructed by William Bringhurst. Gradually the furnishings were
improved. Desks were made from old wagon boxes by placing the
boards on pegs that had been driven into the logs that were part of
the walls of the cabin. The cabin was heated by a fireplace at one
end. Eventually the equipment included slates, pencils and meager
supplies of paper and pens. During this process of development,
the children sometimes used colored clay mixed with water to draw
pictures on the surfaces of the logs. Sometimes the dry bark of
white mountain birch was used for drawing and writing. Mary Jane
also used the Bible as a text along with copies of Lindley Murray
Readers and Noah Webster's Spelling Book. 5 * She taught here until
she was eighteen. This meant Mary Jane must have taught for a
short time after Francis and she were married. 59
The Edowment & Sealing
Some accounts suggest that Francis and Mary Jane were married
in the Endowment House. This is not likely. The Endowment House
had not been built in 1848. It was completed in 1855. Both
Francis and Mary Jane were endowed on 21 Feb 1851 and Sealed on 3
March 1851. These dates do not coincide with their 17 November
1848 Marriage. The marriage was a civil marriage and the sealing
came a short time later as indicated on the above date. Elder
Addison Pratt received his endowment on Ensign Peak in 1849. 60 Had
the Endowment House been available at this time, Elder Pratt as
well as Francis and Mary Jane would have received these ordinances
in that structure. Where Francis and Mary Jane were endowed is
uncertain. However, most family records have them receiving their
endowments and sealing in the Endowment House. Some endowments
were given in the President's Office. These were often referred to
as given in the endowment house even though the endowment house had
not at the time of Francis's and Mary Jane's endowment been built.
The endowment date of 21 February 1851 and the sealing date of 3
March 1851 are accurate.
Francis and Mary Jane's First Home
Francis and Mary Jane made their first home in South Fort.
During the winter of 1847, the saints domiciled in the old Fort at
the present site of Pioneer Park. The administration of the city
was under the direction of the stake presidency and high council
while the general authorities went back to Winter Quarters to
return with the remaining pioneers. Father John Smith, the Church
patriarch was the president of the stake. It was he, the reader
will remember, who gave Francis his patriarchal blessing. It was
these leaders who decided that the original fort was not large
enough to accommodate everyone, so they selected two joining blocks
-- one to the north and one to the south -- to be part of the fort.
It was in this south addition that Francis and Mary Jane first set
up housekeeping. No doubt part of the conversations between
Francis and Mary Jane were about the preceding winter or first
winter in the enclosures regarding the leaky roofs. Mary Jane had
experienced the first winter in the valley under one of these flat
and leaky roofs. 61
Francis summarizes that first year as: "This year was one to
always remember. We were very happy. The saints in the valley
lived as one big family. We had very few luxuries but we had
parties, dancing and singing." 62
With the arrival of Brigham Young and the other leaders with
approximately twenty-five hundred more new valley residents from
Winter Quarters in the fall of 1848, the existing structures were
not sufficient to house everyone. The fear of Indian attack
lessened -- at least in the valley, and the saints were encouraged
to leave the forts and begin to build their own homes. A land
office was organized and land apportionments were given out. The
city and valley tracts were surveyed, and when it became fitting,
Francis and Mary Jane, also moved into their own little home. This
move took place shortly before the fall of 1850. They moved to
South Cottonwood in the Salt Lake Valley. It was here that their
first child and son was born: 15 September 1850 and named Francis
Although Indian attacks were not of too much concern in the
general area of the Salt Lake Valley, 1849 was the year of some
tragic activities with some of the tribes. Brigham Young, although
he preferred to feed the Indians rather than to fight them,
encouraged the saints not to be too familiar with these untutored
souls. The saints could help them more by showing resolve and
being a teacher and example -- but not one of them. The first
tragic incident with the Indians occurred in the Tooele valley.
Four Indians were killed. Then there were the discussions with
Chief Walker and the Church leaders. He was baptized and ordained
to the priesthood. Another incident involving casualties occurred
in Utah Valley at Fort Utah and at the south end of Utah Lake.
Joseph Higbee and forty Indians were killed in this encounter. To
the North in Ogden, a settler was killed. The prompt reaction and
display of force by the settlers prevented more bloodshed. 63
In spite of these unfortunate incidents with the Indians,
things were looking pretty good for Francis and Mary Jane. But
their lives would soon have a dramatic change of course.
FRANCIS AND MARY JANE GO ON A MISSION
The leaders of the Church were aware of their responsibility
of gathering Israel from all the world, even the Isles of the
Sea. 64 Elder Addison Pratt was sent on a mission to the Society
Islands in October of 1849, 65 and now in 1850-1851 a mission was
to be established in the Hawaiian Islands, 66 also known as "The
Sandwich Islands." This was the name given to the islands by
Captain James Cook of the British Navy when he discovered them in
1778. He named them after the Earl of Sandwich. Sandwich was the
first lord of the British Admiralty at the time. In 1820 a
protestant missionary by the name of Hiram Bingham led a group of
missionaries who pretty well Protestantized all of the islands. In
fact at one time Protestantism was considered the state religion.
It was this Protestant influence that later made it difficult for
the Elders of Israel to preach during the time that Francis and
Mary Jane would reside on the islands as Latter-day Saint mission-
One incident that took place in 1839 that may have helped
prepare the way for the missionaries in Francis's group was when
the French frigate L'Art'emise blockaded Honolulu. The captain of
the frigate threatened to bombard the city unless imprisoned Catho-
lics were released. The Protestant monopoly had brought about
persecution against the Catholics in the Islands. This action of
the captain of the L'Art'emise led to the establishment of more
religious freedom in the islands, which obviously was of benefit
for all denominations, including the Mormons a little over ten
years later. 67 As the reader will note later on, however, in spite
of this improved tolerance of all religions on the islands, the
Mormons would still have to struggle against prejudice and some
unofficial persecution. But this incident of the blockade would at
least make the task less difficult for Francis and the other Mormon
missionaries than if it had not happened.
The First Missionaries to Hawaii
With Francis's recent knowledge of the islands, his experience
with the natives, and having some knowledge of the language, the
year 1851 was a good time for Francis to be called on a mission to
these islands that he had grown to love. He received his call in
March of 1851. His was the one of a second group of missionaries
that was called. The first group was sent under the direction of
Elder Charles C. Rich of the Council of the Twelve Apostles who at
that time was presiding over the California Mission. The original
number of this first group was ten.
Included in this first group was George Q. Cannon, a future
apostle and member of the first presidency of the Church under
Presidents Taylor, Woodruff, and Snow. Brother Cannon had
accompanied Elder Rich to California and had been working in the
gold fields as part of his assignment from the Church. Although
Brigham Young had vehemently resisted the temptation to the partake
of riches associated with the California gold fields, the Church
had financially pressing obligations. Some of the gold brought
back by the Mormon Battalion, proved to have economic benefits to
the Utah settlements. Since Francis came to Utah from the gold
fields in company with a complement of the battalion members, some
of his gold may have also contributed to these benefits. In light
of these circumstances, it seemed prudent to Brigham Young to
modify his stand regarding the mining of gold. The possibility of
clearing some of the Church's debts and creating a little capital
in the settlements and the Utah territory with some of the wealth
of the California gold mines prompted him to select a few good men
to go to the gold fields. They were called on missions for this
purpose. Those men who were called to this mission did so with the
idea that the gold that they mined would not be entirely their own,
but much of it would be given to the Church.
Elder Charles C. Rich in September of 1850 went to the little
mining camp in which these mining missionaries were working and
selected eight of them to preach the gospel in the Hawaiian
Islands. Along with George Q. Cannon, were John Dixon, William
Farrar, James Hawkins, James Keeler, Thomas Morris, and Thomas
Whittle. Less than a year later, Francis would be working with
some of these very men. 68
George Q. Cannon and Francis later spent a great deal of time
preaching the gospel together; and during his extensive traveling
with Brother Cannon, Francis heard Brother Cannon bear his
testimony of the spiritual experiences that he had when he first
arrived on the Islands: instructions from the Lord regarding the
Israelite heritage of the Hawaiian people. During his travels with
Brother Cannon Francis became acutely aware of Brother Cannon's
gift in learning and writing the language. After Francis also
mastered the language, he assisted Brother Cannon with some of the
translation of the Book of Mormon into the Hawaiian language.
Five of the first group of missionaries left the islands after
they found out that the whites of the islands were not receptive to
the gospel. The original mission was to the whites. However,
Cannon and those of his companions who remained took the gospel
message to the natives and had great success. The first branch of
the church was organized by Brother Cannon at Kula, Maui in 1851,
a short time before Francis arrived.
Francis's group included Francis and Mary Jane and their six
month old son Franky, 69 along with Philip B. Lewis and John S.
Woodbury. Elder Lewis was also accompanied by his wife, but Sister
Woodbury joined Elder Woodbury a short time later. 70 Elder Lewis
was appointed to be the president of the mission.
This mission proved to be a time of testing and faith building
to both Francis and Mary Jane. Their lives were totally changed;
and because of their willingness to sacrifice and put their trust
in the Lord, the Lord blessed them and developed them into some of
his most faithful servants. Francis later faced all of the
challenges of a missionary of that period: persecution, struggle
in mastering and writing in an unknown tongue, loneliness,
disagreement with fellow missionaries, feelings of inadequacy,
defending the gospel before prelates and government officials, and
the exhilaration of the gifts of the spirit. He also exhibited a
great deal of faith during his mission as he often had to leave his
family for weeks at a time. Occasionally he was gone from their
presence when they were sick and had inadequate sustenance. Mary
Jane was a persevering and devoted wife. Although she had some
help from Francis in providing for the temporal needs of the
family, upon her was the primary burden of supporting Francis,
caring for the children, and mending and making clothes for her
family and the missionaries. Missionaries were also boarded.
There were times when she was so tired that she could scarcely
continue her labors; she was often homesick and discourage; but
through it all, she remembered her duty to the Lord and to her
husband in his sacred call.
Another Covered Wagon Journey
So in April of 1851 just a month after he received his
missionary call, Francis, Mary Jane, six months old Francis, and
the other missionaries started for San Pedro, California. Little
did Francis realize back in the early fall of 1848 during his
conversation with Elder Pratt regarding the likelihood of some of
scattered Israel inhabiting the islands of the Pacific that in a
few years he would be assisting in their gathering.
Why the missionaries did not go by land directly to San Fran-
cisco, is not known. The route via San Pedro obviously must have
been considered the better route.
In their covered wagons, they traversed over the most
difficult deserts in the West. The journey was arduous and
exhausting, and it took them two months. 71 This journey included
all of the experiences that the reader can imagine. During the
journey, this small group of pioneers was concerned about reaching
each source of water before the group's operating supply ran out.
How far would it be before the livestock would be able to get more
forage? Some of that territory includes miles of desert sand where
no livestock forage of any kind is available. As they trudged
slowly over the parched terrain, the pioneers felt the drying winds
wither their cracked lips. The dust covered their clothes and
caked on their perspiring brows. Caring for a six month old baby
and all of the demands of nursing and caring for him tested the
stamina of Mary Jane. She was young -- twenty years old — and had
experienced these tests earlier when she came across the plains in
1847. But this time she was crossing a dessert and caring for a
six month old infant. What courage and faith were exhibited by her
and the other great women of her time.
From San Pedro to San Francisco
Francis and Mary Jane arrived in San Pedro two months later,
sold their wagon and animals, and purchased passage for San
Francisco. This voyage was probably a pleasant respite for
Francis. It, no doubt, was the first time that Mary Jane had
experienced such a long ocean voyage, even if it were just up the
California coast. Now, Francis presumably explained in detail all
of the fascinating technicalities of sailing a ship. During their
first years of marriage, Francis's discussions with Mary Jane about
his sea experiences were likely of a general nature. However, the
intimate relationship they now had with the ship and the ocean
provided Francis with the classroom to give Mary Jane an explana-
tion of every aspect of sailing an oceanic vessel. He defined for
her the different kinds of sailing vessels. Excitedly and with
enthusiasm, Francis lectured Utah's first school teacher about the
science of sailing. It was stimulating for Francis; and for Mary
Jane, she would appreciate the vast background that her husband had
acquired during his young life. He was now even more of a hero to
When in San Francisco, Francis worked making and repairing
shoes until he could arrange the passage to the Islands. During
their leisure times, Francis and Mary Jane probably took turns
carrying little Franky as Francis showed them about the city.
Francis was no doubt amazed but not surprised at the changes in San
Francisco since he last saw it. More details of his life were
unfolded to Mary Jane. Visiting old familiar places was a pleasant
experience for Francis to share with his loving wife. They must
have talked about the Church organization in San Francisco under
the leadership of Samuel Brannan. Mary Jane heard Francis explain
some of the business difficulties that he had with Brannan. Again,
he described to her the experience of his conversion to the
When Francis had worked long enough to acquire sufficient
funds for passage for him and his family to Hawaii along with
purchasing a sufficient supply of leather in order to ply his trade
in the islands -- Francis would need to use his trade to support
him and his family while on his mission -- he booked passage on the
ship Huntress. L. Lambert was its captain. 72 Francis mentioned
in his diary the name of the captain of the vessel. Who runs the
ship is important to a professional seaman. Accompanying Francis
was also Elder and Sister Lewis, Elder Woodbury, and Elder and
Arrival in Hawaii
Elder Farrar met Elder Lewis and Francis in Honolulu. Francis
and his family along with Elder Lewis and Elder Farrar took a
schooner for Lahaina and arrived in Lahaina, Maui on 10 August
1851. The reader will remember that it was here that Francis was
placed ashore by his shipmates to either die or somehow miracu-
lously recover. What would have been Francis's life been like had
he not had that accident? If he were to eventually be gathered in
the gospel net, his biography would have been considerably
The missionaries met together ten days later. It was at this
meeting that Elder Lewis was sustained as the mission president.
President Lewis and Francis remained in Lahaina. Elder Woodbury
was assigned to work with Elder Hawkins.
Missionary Life of the Hammonds
when he first arrived in Hawaii, as in San Francisco, Francis
also noted the changes that had taken place since he was last on
the Islands. He again visited old retreats and Mary Jane became
better acquainted with her husband as the familiar environment
brought to Francis's mind again some of his earlier experiences.
The missionaries needed to get to Waihu, but they stayed over a few
days with Brother and Sister Perkins in Waikapu. 73 After they
arrived in Waihu, the natives built them a house, and Francis set
him up a shop so as to apply his leather trade, and Mary Jane
prepared to start a school. She charged twenty- five cents a day
for each enrolled child.
What kind of a house did Francis and Mary Jane live in? Elder
Cannon describes the islands 's native dwelling places:
These native houses are built by putting posts in
the ground on which a board is laid as a plate for the
rafters to rest upon. When the frame of posts and
rafters is built, poles . . . are lashed horizontally
about six inches apart, on to the posts and rafters. The
house is then thatched by fastening a durable grass,
which they have in that country, on to the poles. When
finished, a house looks, in shape and size like a well
built hay stack. . . .
Inside the house they have no board floors. The
ground is covered with grass, on which mats are laid.
The making of these mats constitutes one of the chief
employments of the women, and a good housewife in that
country is known by the quality and fineness of the mats
in her home. Such a woman is very particular to have no
dirt brought into her house; for the mats answer the
purpose of beds, tables and chairs. 74
No doubt Francis and Mary Jane lived in such quarters during their
mission. It is likely they were modified, when possible, to match
their more conventional life style.
Francis noted that it was simpler to trade and do business
with the natives than it was to preach the gospel to them, but he
also observed that Mary Jane's native students were more conscien-
tious than the white students. He summarized his and Mary Jane's
She [Mary Jane] also took in sewing and opened her
home to children by the month. I was away from home a
good deal of the time and this helped to keep her from
thinking of the states. The missionaries soon got word
of her ability to sew and cook and the door was always
open to them. Elder George Q. Cannon was laboring in the
Islands at this time and was one of our welcome
Mary Jane worked tirelessly. It was hard work to support her
household and her husband in his missionary responsibilities.
Obviously, she was exhausted at the end of a busy day. Added to
these many duties, she was also cared for a little boy in diapers,
and who was also learning to walk. She felt the concern for his
physical well-being along with all of these other arduous duties.
She also helped Francis with the binding of the shoes when he made
or repaired them.
Francis reported in his journal that they got from place to
place either by walking, riding horseback, or as passengers in a
two wheeled cart. On one occasion, Mary Jane had some difficulty
riding the Spanish saddle. Probably the uncomfortable position of
sitting on it and the bouncing caused an irritation that brought
about a boil under her arm. Francis did not like to ride a horse,
either. This may explain why later in his life he took such pride
in his buggies. Riding the horse to conference took two days. On
one occasion in his travels to Koolau he traveled by foot over a
mountainous road. The road took the travelers to an elevation of
500 feet above the sea, and then in a short distance returned them
to sea level.
The saints shared their provisions with the Hammonds. They
kept them supplied with "fish, bread, chickens, turkey, sweet pota-
toes, Kalu, and goat's milk. Brother Hauna presented them with a
goat so that little Franky could have milk." Strawberries were in
abundance, and they were prepared in a variety of ways. Francis
enjoyed the "strawberry parties."
As with most missionaries, the Hammonds treasured letters from
home. Sometimes they went weeks without this news. However, they
did have the privilege of reading Elder Cannon's copies of The
Deseret News, even though they were delivered infrequently with a
month's worth of subscriptions at each mailing. Francis also
referred to getting news about the anti-Mormon sentiment in the New
In 1852 when the Church announced the official beliefs of the
Church regarding polygamy, there arose considerable excitement in
the press throughout the country, but particularly in New York.
The New York Herald was a purveyor of the news, but it was also
responsible for much of the editorializing against the practice.
Sometimes the news from home was sad. It was in October of
1852 that they got the word from Sister Dilworth that Mary Jane's
father, Caleb Dillworth, died. As noted in a previous chapter,
Caleb chose not to join the Church. However, the news of his death
left the Hammonds dejected. According to Francis, Caleb left no
will; and he inferred that Caleb sorely missed his family. Francis
and Mary Jane sent a letter by way of Brother and Sister Woodbury
informing Sister Dilworth that they had received the unhappy news.
Additionally, in May of 1853 Francis received unwelcome news
regarding his family. He got word from his brother informing him
of the death of one of his uncles.
Mastering the Language
Because of his early experience in the islands, Francis did
some business with the natives, but he did not become proficient
enough in the language to preach in a scholarly manner. During the
first year of his mission he studied the language and grammar
pretty hard. At times he felt a little discouraged that he could
not fluently speak to the natives in their own language. However,
he gradually became very skillful in communicating in the indige-
nous tongue .
He traveled considerably with Elder Cannon. On Sunday the
29th of February Francis attended a meeting in Wauoluku with Elder
Cannon. In the morning Elder Cannon used as the text for his
sermon the 24th Chapter of Matthew. In the afternoon, Francis
attempted to speak, using the 1st Chapter of Ephesians as his text.
He still was not proficient enough to feel comfortable in speaking
in the native language. He said that he was a bit embarrassed. He
wasn't too pleased with himself. On other occasions he must have
done well, but he attributed his good speech delivery on those
occasions to the outpouring of the spirit. A few failures spurred
him on in his studies and made him humble. In his journal entry of
25 March, just a month later, Francis stated: "I am improving
slowly in the language -- can preach when I have the spirit of the
Lord upon me pretty well. My desire is to increase."
Francis seemed to get along very well with Elder Farrar. He
wrote to him frequently, and in a letter to him dated 28 June 1852
from Waichu, Maui, he expresses himself to Elder Farrar very
openly. This letter also gives the feelings and depths of his
spiritual self as he expresses these feelings to another elder to
whom Francis related openly and warmly. In spite of its length,
this letter is quoted in full:
Dear Brother Farrar,
Seeing you do not mean to write to me the first
letter I thought I would wave all formality and write you
a few lines believing you are always glad to hear from
your brethren in the Gospel of truth, for I believe we
are all labouring for the same object and for the same
Master and in the same field, and we all expect the same
pay, that is eternal life. This is the great object of
our Mission into this world to try to prove ourselves.
And I for one feel to rejoice in having the privilege of
coming forth in this day and dispensation when the truth
is again on the earth, the Gospel of our Lord and Savior
Jesus Christ, together with the Holy Priesthood all
restored again to the earth, and man, mortal man,
commissioned again with the power to go forth and teach
mankind the plan of salvation. This should make every
elder's heart rejoice as it no doubt does. I feel more
and more the importance of my mission here to these
islands, although it sometimes looks like a long and
tedious work to ever raise or exalt this nation to a very
great state of elevation. But again when I look around
and see what the Lord has accomplished in only one year
or less perhaps since the first sermon of Mormonism was
preached in this town, but now we can count our hundreds
rejoicing in the truth enjoying the gifts of the Church,
to a greater or less extent, many of them able to rise up
and declare they know the truth for themselves, we have
been able to preach the law of tithing to them, and they
have rejoiced in it. The truth of it is we are at work
amongst old Israel, and they are about to come out from
their hiding place, if we can see thus much brought to
pass in one year, and we are labouring under every
disadvantage possible for men to labour under, a foreign
people, a foreign tongue and a missionary influence of 30
years standing and they all college bred to a man, and
then the superstitions of the people. I say if we have
through the strength of the Lord and our perseverance
accomplished so much in one year what will we be able to
say in ten years from now, when if we continue to labour
here we will be able to speak this tongue as fluently as
our own. Therefore my brethren, let us be encouraged and
renew our diligence and fight on for it is a continual
warfare that we are engaged in, and the enemy only gives
the ground as we advance. The missionaries are all hard
at work to contrive how they can best hinder our opera-
tions upon these islands. They have refused to sell any
more hymn books to our folks, and trying to persuade
those of our members who have left their church to come
back again telling them that they were very sorry that
they should be so deceived. But they have not been able
to get any to return except one teacher who was offered
a chance to teach school if he would renounce Mormonism.
He I believe is the only one that has gone back.
The work is rolling steadily along on this island,
the natives are growing and increasing in faith daily.
It seems no trouble to teach them principle, that is many
of them do seem to rejoice in the truth and say they had
rather die than renounce their principles. We have
ordained three to the Priest after the order of Aaron,
Napola, Uaua, and Kaleahano. They have all magnified
their offices as yet and been a great deal of help to us.
Brother Hawkins things of taking Kaleahano with him all
the time, that is to travel with him. Brother Keeler
wants one to go with him also.
Brother Hawkins is doing a good work up in Kula.
The work has been prospered up there ever since he has
been there. He is rejoicing in his labours, baptizing,
confirming and preaching about all the time. He has been
blessed ever since he came down from Hawaii . Brother
Keeler is at Kaupou about 30 miles from Kula. He is
doing well. There he has baptized some thirty and
organized a branch. They were both well last Friday when
I left them in Kula. Brother and Sister Woodbury has
left Hawaii and gone to join Brother Perkins at Molokai .
They were all well a short time since. Usua was over on
Molokai a week or two ago and baptized some thirty and
says that Brother Perkins wants one of us to come over
and help him for he cannot do anything yet towards
organizing the branch. I think of going over for a week
or so and then Brother Cannon and me are going to try it
at Lehaina with fear and trembling for that is the hell
of this Island.
I wrote to Brother Bigler yesterday. Brothers
George, Hawkins, Keeler, my wife and all the brethren and
sisters join me in sending their love to you. Give my
love to Brother and sister Lewis. Please ask Brother
Lewis whether he has ever received my letters from me for
I have written as many as 8 and I have never received a
scrap in return, your brother in the Gospel
Francis A. Hammond
According to Francis, by April of 1853, the Church in Hawaii
had grown to about 600 natives. Therefore, in just a little over
a year since the missionaries first arrived in the islands, the
mission had made remarkable progress. At a conference on 1 April,
Francis described, in glowing terms, the spiritual outpouring at
that meeting. "I never enjoyed myself so well in all my life and
it was so with all the brethren and sisters. The natives and
Brethren -- what few were there -- were filled with the spirit of
prophesying by the power of the spirit. It will be long remembered
by them. " Mary Jane and Franky accompanied Francis at this
conference, and "They stood the journey well."
Meetings were usually held in homes or under the trees. Later
on, meeting houses were built or rented.
Francis's journal entries gives details of the various
missionary assignments, their travels, and reports. By the end of
April 1852, Francis seemed to be mastering the language pretty
well. His travels have him going alone more frequently to fill
assignments. He continued to study the language, but he also
studied music, along with Mary Jane and Elder Cannon.
Sometimes the missionaries did not always get along together.
There was some jealousy. Francis identified many of these strug-
gles and how they were resolved. Occasionally the disagreements
were with the native converts. On one occasion, Francis asked a
whole congregation at Koolau to be rebaptized. He told them that
they needed to renew their covenants. This they did. This was a
practice that the Church did in those days. On this occasion, the
rebaptisms were arranged for the following day. Francis rebaptized
a Brother Napela and confirmed him again and ordained him again
with his priesthood.
Brother Jonatana H. Napela was a stalwart and loyal member of
the Church. He helped the fist missionaries in Maui, _ was a
community leader, and assisted Brother Cannon in translating the
Book of Mormon into the native language. 76
After Brother Napela 's baptism, confirmation, and ordination,
Brother Napela rebaptized the whole congregation; and as the re-
baptized members came out of the water -- this ordinance was
performed in the ocean -- Francis stood by on the shore and
confirmed them. The meeting that followed was a very tearful but
The missionaries frequently asked the Lord to modify the
weather so as to make their journeys safe. On 1 June, the rain was
heavy, the river unfordable and dangerous, and the brethren were
unable to get to their meeting. Brother Napela suggested that the
missionaries kneel and pray for the rain to cease and the river to
become safer. In a short time their prayers were answered. They
crossed the river in safety and proceeded to the meeting.
Missionary conferences were an inspiration to Francis. The 23
May 1852 conference included a fast. It is interesting that one of
the conditions of the fast was that the brethren refrain from the
use of tobacco. The Word of Wisdom at that time was still not
taken as a commandment .
Francis was always concerned with his pride. He and Elder
Cannon, after they had returned from Lahaina on 2 July 1852, became
sick. After walking all night over the mountain, Francis spent
the next couple of days resting and reading, but by the 7th of
July, he started becoming sick.
This morning, I woke up with a distressing headache
and a great fever. Pain in all my bones -- have not been
as sick before since I was married. About 10 o'clock,
Brother Cannon came over - sick also with the same
complaint. We both caught it in Lahaina. I believe the
Lord has suffered it to come upon me to humble me, for I
have not enjoyed the spirit long back as I used to, and
it is because I do not live for it as I ought. May I be
able to acknowledge the hand of the Lord in all
things . 77
This was one of those little gems in Francis's diary that
reveals his sincerity and the deep things of his heart. He knew
how important it was to have the Spirit of the Lord with him in
this sacred ministry. Although ever desirous to do the Lord's
work, like all missionaries, he had to occasionally rededicate
himself in order to enjoy the proper relationship with spiritual
things -- always fine-tuning his spiritual machinery. Francis was
grateful to the Lord for his help, even though this help was
sometimes painful. This illness lasted for about a week.
The following entry gives the reader an idea of a typical
meeting day in Francis's mission:
Early this morning, Bro. Hawkins set out for Kula on
horse back — 15 miles to preach. Bro. Cannon, Keeler,
and myself went over to Waisluku to meeting. Brother.
Geo. spoke first on the spread of the Gospel and the
Second Coming of Christ, and followed by Bro. Keeler and
myself on the same subject. Had a good time with a good
share of the spirit of the Lord with us and the Saints.
In the afternoon, Bro. Keeler preached from Matt. 4:24,
followed by Bro Cannon and myself. We had a time of
rejoicing, both of us and the Saints. We all felt like
receiving our covenants and setting out anew. 78
Sometimes the missionaries had special prayers. They were
ever aware of their spiritual status and often importuned the Lord
in a most sacred way, even as they had been taught.
This morning I attended meeting. About noon, went
to the mountains for prayer into a secret place where we
could pray according to the Priesthood. We did not have
as much spirit as usual, but we were all very tired - did
not have much sleep last night. Bro. Keeler kept
On Thursday, 29 July, 1852, Francis paid tribute to Mary Jane.
It was her birthday.
This is Mrs. Hammond's birthday which brings with it
many pleasing memories of by gone days that she has spent
in the society of friends most dear by the kindred
affection, but they are many miles from her now, but
still we love to call them to mind. She is well and in
good spirits and may the Lord spare her to see a long
succession of birthdays. To do much good on the earth
that she may see her children's children growing up a
mighty host around to help to bear of the Kingdom of our
Master in these days, and may her life be spared to feel
this, her first mission with honor to herself and glory
to the Redeemer's cause. That she may return to her
friends in the mountains in safety and behold their faces
again in the flesh and rejoice again together in the
midst of the Saints. She is learning the native language
fast. About 8 or 9 o'clock this morning, there was seen
a wonderful phenomenon to take place opposite of Makawa
out to sea about 3 or 4 miles. The water parted as under
a large column of smoke was seen to ascend into the air
for a distance of 300 ft. black as jet at the base, but
as it ascended, became more light and finally blew away
into thin air or vapor. It was believed to have been
caused from action of a volcano.
One gets the impression that this special day of Mary Jane's
had Francis taking special moments in his thoughts for his beloved
companion. He recognized the sacrifice that was hers as she shared
with him this special assignment from the Lord.
By the end of 1853 the Church had grown to over three thousand
members. Hawaiian brethren were ordained elders and called on six
month missions early in the history of the mission. 80
Francis grieved at the difficulty of trying to help the newly
baptized converts become close to the Lord and living up to their
baptismal covenants. At one meeting he visited only a few were in
attendance. Those that were at the meeting were indifferent. The
missionaries informed the apathetic saints that their inability to
enjoy the richness of the Spirit of the Lord as they once did was
the result of their iniquity. In his 3 August 1852 journal entry,
Francis related: "The sin of adultery is very common with them
[native converts] . Almost every week, some come before the church
for this crime. This is the greatest thing which they have to
fight against . " Francis further told of hearing of one of the
first ordained teachers being guilty of teaching "that if they did
sin a little, that the Lord would forgive them. This he taught to
the women of his love." Francis informed Elder Farrar in a letter
that most of the native elders in Hawaii had been found guilty of
adultery and that they had to have their licenses revoked. He
noted, however, that the native missionaries worked well under the
supervision of a devoted white elder. 81
On Monday, 9 August 1852 Francis took Mary Jane with him on
one of his trips to Makawoa. They left little Franky with Sister
Rice. They were accompanied by Brothers Kip and Rice. Part of
this journey must have been to see Brother Baker, who had been
slandering Mary Jane and Brother Hawkins. Apparently, this matter
was corrected. Later entries indicate the continuing of the work
of the Lord in company with Brother Hawkins. However, Brother
Hawkins later took offense at what Francis thought was an act of
respect toward him. These hurt feelings took Francis by surprise.
Francis had surrendered his opportunity to speak in one of the
Church meetings to Brother Keeler. Francis felt that the honor of
speaking should be given to the older missionaries. Brother
Hawkins interpreted Francis's actions as assuming authority. This
of course was not Francis's design. Francis felt bad about the
incident. He took the experience as a good lesson.
Francis had written five letters to Brother Lewis, the mission
president, which were not delivered to him. Because of this lack
of communication, Brother Lewis also misunderstood the motives of
Francis for some of the actions that he had taken. Francis also,
in his enthusiasm, extended his area of work outside of Lahaina.
As noted, he often accompanied Elder Cannon in his travels, and
Francis was thrilled with the power of Elder Cannon's discourse and
his ability to refute the Protestant doctrine. On some of these
occasions Francis was really out of his territory, and he took his
rebuke from Elder Lewis with humility. It took a couple of months
to finally get everything straightened out. He also recognized
Elder Lewis as the one in authority, and the one who made the
Francis, being the younger of the two missionaries in age and
in tenure in the Church often had some difficulty in getting along
with Elder Lewis and some of the other older missionaries.
Spurrier suggests: "Lewis was the president but felt himself at a
disadvantage in the presence of Hammond's greater knowledge of the
land and situation." 82
At this same meeting, Brother Cannon also gave Francis a
I was told that I should be blessed in my mission
upon these islands; that I should be blessed in teaching
the truth to the inhabitants of the Isles; that they
should seek me for council, and mighty should be the
words which should flow from my lips; that I should be
blessed in my family; that they should be blessed from
day to day; that I should be blessed in my posterity down
to the latest generation; that the Lord was pleased with
me and exhorted to have faith and seek to be humble at
all times and pliable in the hands of the Lord. . .
One of the incidents that was supposed to help Francis carry
out his mission as defined in this blessing was the loaning of a
horse to Francis by a Mr. Edmunds. However, Francis would need to
break him. If Francis was successful, he would be able to have the
use of the horse for six months. It was a difficult task. He was
thrown from the horse several times.
The missionaries were not only preaching the gospel, but they
were also establishing industry and farming upon the islands. Some
of the discussions among the missionaries involved such items as
purchasing grist mills, land, building churches, etc. Sometimes
the missionaries were not in complete agreement, and bad feelings
During the late summer of 1852, just about all of the
missionaries had some kind of an eye infection, including Elder
Cannon. Several entries in Francis's journal makes mention of this
complaint, not only of his own affliction, but also of the afflic-
tion of the others.
In October, Francis started getting short of funds. He tried
to sell his cook stove and his cloak. He still expressed his
gratitude for his blessings.
Two years after it happened, Francis received word from his
father that his younger brother had been drowned in a ship-wreck.
Received a letter from my father. John F. was
drowned in a gale of wind off the coast of Virginia in
the winter of 1850 in the month of November. The vessel
was wrecked and all hands drowned except the captain was
picked up on a piece of the wreck the next day. Sad news
-- he was about 21 years old. I had not seen him since
he was 13 . I loved him much, but I do not give up like
with no hope. Peace to his memory. There is now only 6
left out of 9, and I thought that they may all embrace
the Gospel. 83
The next day (2 December) Francis wrote home to his father.
He preached the gospel in his long, but ernest letter.
At the end of January 1853 Dr. Jud and R. Armstrong went to
the King. These men requested that the king forbid Mormons and
Catholics from preaching on the islands. These men's argument for
getting the king to accept this petition was that Mormons and
Catholics brought bowling, gambling, and drinking. However, the
king informed the learned gentlemen that these vises were on the
island long before the Mormons and Catholics came. The king also
informed the prelates that it would not be good to have just one
sect on the islands. The earlier actions of the captain of the
French frigate L'Art'emise may have had an influence on the king.
An interesting interlude to Francis's missionary work occurred
on the 3rd of February. He was called to jury duty. It involved
a trial between a Charles Crockett and James Whettet. The trial
concerned a property dispute. Francis indicated that fraud was
involved, but he did not say which man was guilty.
About the end of February nineteen new missionaries arrived in
the islands. That would be quite a few missionaries for the work
in that part of the world. The leaders of the church apparently
felt the promptings to push the missionary work in the islands
time. On the eighth of March, Francis, along with the other
current missionaries met the new missionaries at a missionary
conference held in Honolulu. They had a good time getting the news
of home from the new elders. They brought a copy of the revelation
on marriage. As noted this was probably a frequent topic of
discussion between Francis and Mary Jane. All the missionaries
sustained the revelation. Sister Burningham, however, was
Mary Jane was now heavy with her second child. Brother
Woodbury brought Francis a letter from Mary Jane on the 15th of
March. She informed Francis that she "might take sick." Francis
borrowed money from Brothers Dennis, Burnham, and Franklin. He
probably needed this money to help his family.
On his return to Lahaina, Francis got seasick for the first
time in years. However, he soon recovered and preached the gospel
to some of the other passengers. When he arrived home, he found
Mary Jane well, and she had 10 pupils in her school. Francis
received $100.00 advance along with a promise of two steers and
heifers from Antonio Catalina. This was in payment for his adopted
son's tuition in Mary Jane's school. This resource helped them to
buy a place of their own. The next day, 15 March, Francis and Mary
Jane went out to look at a house that they were considering buying.
One of the activities that everyone participated in on the
islands was that of gathering grass for the roofs of the houses.
The missionaries were no exception. Along with gathering grass on
the 16th, Francis also did some surgery. It seems that a child of
one of the members cut his foot very badly on a broken bottle. It
required some stitches. Francis did this, although he said that it
was the first time that he had ever attempted to do it. He did it
by using tobacco and rum as a healing and sterilizing agents.
The Purchase of a House
On 21 March 1853, Francis and Mary Jane purchased the home
that they were anticipating buying. This proved to be a real
morale builder to Mary Jane. Up until this date, they had been
renting. At the time of this purchase they were renting their
abode from Antonia Catalina. They moved out of his house at about
noon. Antonia had been away at Waikapu, but he returned about
midnight on the twenty-first. Francis was glad to see Antonia
because he did not like moving out before his landlord had
returned. Antonia also brought with him the heifer that he had
promised Francis. A few days before the move, Brother Keeler had
made a cupboard for Mary Jane. This must have been a welcome bit
of furniture for Mary Jane in her new environment. Their newly
purchased home would help Mary Jane in her school teaching.
Just a few hours after Mary Jane and Francis made the purchase
of the house, they "had a prayer meeting according to the order and
dedicated the house to the good of the mission and to the Lord."
During the next few days, Francis, Mary Jane, and some of the
missionaries completed the move. Francis expressed his gratitude
to the Lord "in permitting us to obtain a house for ourselves and
a home for the Elders to rest once in a while. May the Lord assist
us to make a right use of it to his name's glory."
The following entries in Francis's journal gives additional
insight into the kind of activities in which the Hammonds were
"Wd. Mrch 3 0th - Bro Cannon and Snider set out for
Wailuku - one horse between them. Employed in shoe
making. Mrs. Hammond is very busy with her school and
with her little ones which we have taken to care for.
Thurs, Mrch 31st - Employed in shoemaking. Mrs.
hammond is busy with her little ones. She has a trial in
more ways than one, but she does not complain. She
enjoys herself as well as can be expected. We are very
comfortable in our new house. Times are good here now.
Friday - April 1st - The seeds I planted are
beginning to come through. This is a good place for a
Sunday - April 3rd - Native meeting at 9A.M. Had a
good flow of the spirit but felt weak in body from lack
of sleep because of the baby we have been taking care of.
Held 2 English meetings and a native meeting where we had
the Lord's Supper. Some of the natives think that if
they can only eat the sacrament they are all right. I do
not see some of them from one fast day to another."
Francis was now staying pretty close to Mary Jane. Her
delivery was getting close. In the meantime, they decided to give
up the house that they were renting for the meeting house. It was
difficult to collect the rent. They took the benches and put them
in front of Francis and Mary Jane's home. They held their meetings
there for a while.
A New Baby
When Mary Jane started her labor for their second child on 15
April 1853, prayers were offered in her behalf. The illness came
upon her while she was teaching school, but she was administered to
and promised a healthy delivery. One of the natives, a Sister
Kipp, attended to her. Francis became the teacher of Mary Jane's
students, but dismissed them early.
Two other sisters were brought in, and they were the midwives
who delivered the new baby. Francis noted that they used no
medicines but used a process called "lumelienceing. " This was done
by rubbing in appropriate places during the delivery. Finally, at
6:00 p.m. Sister Kaua the midwife, delivered to the Hammonds
another baby boy. She continued to attend to Mary Jane until she
was able to regain her strength.
In the confusion of the birth, Francis misplaced his gold pen
and pencil. He later found out that it was Little Francis who was
playing with it. It is interesting that he would mention this at
the time of the birth ordeal. It obviously was an irritant to him.
He later found it, but this incident is mentioned because it shows
how valuable writing materials were considered during those times.
The next morning, Saturday, 16 April, he met with Brother
Hawkins and Brother Woodbury. It was an emotional experience.
Francis probably expressed his gratitude, and the brethren declared
their love and friendship.
He did the cooking and helped attend to Mary Jane. During the
next week, Francis taught Mary Jane's students. By Friday, April
22, Mary Jane was again teaching her school, and Francis on that
same day in the evening blessed their new son. It was a very
spiritual blessing as Francis describes it as "Had much of the
Spirit of the Lord and did prophesy many things upon his head."
Their second son was named Samuel Smith Hammond.
The following is Mary Jane's comment on this occasion:
Tues. 15 of April 1853. This day suffering with
child birth 1/4 before 6 O.C. p.m. was delivered of a
fine sone weighing 9 lbs. All the assistance was two
native women but the Lord was mersiful unto me and he
shall have the glory, so ends this eventful day. 84
More Missionary Experiences
Mary Jane's journal goes from 15 April 1853 to Monday, 12
February 1855. Most of her entries relate her everyday experiences
-- experiences that include the routine of a pioneer housewife,
sewing and cooking for missionaries, nursing them when they were
sick, and concurrently teaching school. She was aware of all of
the spiritual bliss associated with a mission as well as the
routine and the disappointments. She was the chorister in the
local branch. Occasionally Francis and Mary Jane wrote to each
other when Francis was gone for long periods. After Francis would
return from one of his trips around the islands, their reunions
would include the bringing of each other up to date on family
events. They would share each other's joys and sorrows. Their
journal entries about each other were very formal. Francis
referred to Mary Jane as "Mrs. H." and she referred to Francis as
"Mr. Hammond." Sometimes she traveled with Francis. Most of the
time, however, she supported him from their base at their island
domicile. Occasionally, when the work was especially heavy, Mary
Jane received some help from one of the native girls.
Because of her occasional bouts with home-sickness, Mary Jane
found even this island paradise lonely. Wherever family is located
is where one longs to be. Here she was in this island paradise,
but longed to forsake this green and luxuriant land for the harsh
desert among friends and family in the Rocky Mountains.
Francis and Mary Jane both wanted the best they could for the
children. During a smallpox epidemic, they made use of the latest
medical help and had the children vaccinated for the dreaded
disease. Many of the most righteous native elders were taken in
this epidemic. It was difficult for the white elders, who seemed
to be immune from the disease, to understand why the Lord would
take such faithful leadership from the struggling mission.
However, they received the witness that the gospel was then being
preached to the thousands of natives in the spirit world who were
ready to receive the Gospel message by these recently deceased
native elders. 85
Another typical journal entry of Mary Jane's:
Wed Nov 2 Engaged in school 11 scholars, they learn
fast, bound a pair of shoes. Samuel S not very well he
plays on the floor he is six months old. I am very
horse, sick at the stomach from eating some fresh pork,
not use to the fat grease, living principally on poi that
is very wholsom food for this climate, very warm. Had a
mess of new beans very good. All asleep at this house.
Mary Jane loved to teach. She makes a very direct reference
to this in her 17 November 1853 entry to her journal. However,
during times of discouragement and homesickness, even teaching lost
its merit. As noted above, when Francis made shoes, she did the
binding for him. Mary Jane did not like him having to make shoes
to assist in the family's keep. She felt that he was sent on his
mission for other reasons than to make shoes. However, when the
need arose, Francis's shoe making skills came in handy, but Mary
Jane did everything that she could to support him so that he would
not have to interrupt his missionary labors. Most of this support
came from her school teaching. She compared themselves to Paul.
In her journal entry of 22 December she said: "Getting tolerable
well. Mr. H. is shoemaking and I am teaching school so we are like
Paul the Prophet when he was on his mission he hired himself a
house for 2 years. I think he must of worked hard like us."
In December of 1853, Francis received a letter from Elder P.
P. Pratt. The business of the letter discussed the possibility of
his going home by way of New York when that event was to take
place. Mary Jane preferred not to go that way because of the long
ocean voyage. She felt that it would be too hard on the children.
It might have been Francis's desire that on his way home he would
be able to see his family and have his family meet his wife and
children. However, Elder Pratt suggested that it would be best
that they go home first. This pleased Mary Jane.
During November of 1853, Mary Jane was also attending to
Sister Lewis. Sister Lewis was ill. Mary Jane tried to be cordial
in all of her dealings with her; however, she slipped once when she
said: "Sis. Lewis is getting fat but she will not think so." When
Sister Lewis received some personal things that were shipped to
her, Mary Jane said of Sister Lewis: "she is well supplied."
Another comment included: "Sister Lewis is making this her home."
The following 22 December 1853 entry tells more about Mary
Jane's personality and the ordeals that she sometimes had to
Little S.S scalded his right hand severely by
upsetting Sis. Lewis tea pot full of boiling hot tea. I
was much hurt for it was very careless and it was just
school time and I had to carry him for one hour. Put
castor oil on it. He went to sleep and woke up with a
The anxiety of the injured baby was a real test for Mary Jane.
It is easy to visualize her going into her school class, amid the
cries of a very hurt baby, and giving a quick assignment to her
students or telling them to go out and amuse themselves while she
took care of her baby. She frantically paced back and forth as she
carried him and tried to comfort him. Then the relief came when he
finally went to sleep, and gratitude and sweet repose came over her
when Little S. S. awakened with that loving sweet mile on his face.
More agony and ecstacy is experienced by Mary Jane.
Mary Jane continued to treat with castor oil the large blister
that developed from the burn. It eventually healed okay. These
were tender moments as she comforted her baby during the gentle and
Mary Jane related a dream she had in December of 1853. It was
about an Indian war. It is noteworthy that the saints were
involved in an Indian war during the year 1853.
Occasionally, Mrs. Lewis and Mary Jane had words, but they
worked their difficulties out. Sometimes Mary Jane referred to her
as "Sister Lewis." This was probably when their relations must
have become more cordial. Mary Jane summed it all up:
Sis Lewis is making a shirt for Mr. hammond. I have
had my feelings hurt a great many times and as this
evening we had some words but it was for the best. We
found each other out better than we ever did before when
there was an understanding it was all right. She is a
very difficult woman to get along with, It would be hard
with the best of woman. Kleane the house and very tired
so ends this day.
No doubt, Sister Lewis had complaints. We don't have access
to her journal, if she kept one. But the entry gives us a better
picture of the human and emotional struggles associated with people
with different personalities trying to get along together and live
the principles of the Gospel.
Sister Gaston also lived with the Hammonds for a while, and
she was a big help. It was easier for Mary Jane to get along with
On 16 January 1854, Sister Lewis and Brother Tanner left for
Oahu. Francis and Mary Jane assured Sister Lewis that she could
stay with them as long as she desired. They loaned brother Tanner
$4.00 and Sis Lewis $1.00. This probably gave her the necessary
help until she was united with Elder Lewis. Mary Jane felt
somewhat relieved. It was the first time that she and Francis had
been alone for some time. Now the house would be all theirs for a
while. Sister Lewis and Mary Jane continued to correspond with
More from Mary Jane
Francis and Mary Jane made friends with the American Consul
and his wife, Mr. and Mrs. Chase. They invited Francis and Mary
Jane to visit with them.
Many of the children she took as boarders and students were
what Mary Jane called half-casts. These children were obviously
part native and part white. On one occasion she made the comment
that she felt the "half casts exceed the whites in learning." She
accepted all children, whether they were half -casts, natives, or
whites. She often even made her child borders' clothes, along with
making the clothes for her own family.
More of the distress of this woman is illustrated again in two
of her entries:
Sat. Mar 25 54. School but half a day. Resting in
the afternoon, for I am very tired. Samuel S. is very
cross, that my head is almost wild. They say I am
growing old fast, that if I was to go home the folks
there would not know me. No wonder for I work like a
Sun. Mar. 26. 54. Beautiful morning, how my mind
wonders home to accompany my friends to meeting. When
will that time come? I suppose when we have finished our
mission and done a good job, that they will say well done
good and faithful servant.
Francis often made attempts at getting the sailors to come to
church. From time to time they would be at the meetings. A
Captain Alen and a Captain Pope were two of their visitors. Mary-
Jane respected them both, but Captain Pope was an unbeliever.
Apparently they were making progress with Alen. He was even
considering coming to Utah. However, according to Mary Jane, when
Alen was promoted to captain from mate, he lost interest in
religion. When they shipped out, Captain Pope left Francis and
Mary Jane some Indian meal.
Mary Jane became sick for almost a month. The following entry
describes some of her feelings during this illness:
Mon. Apri. 26 54. Taken quite sick not able to write
up my journal so I will write my feelings as far as I can
remember. I have been so sick have many a dull feeling
I never was so home sick since I left home. My faith
seemed to leave and I had a very bad cough. I felt
somewhat frightened when Mr. H would administer to me.
I would feel quite well for a short time, then the evil
spirits would tell me I would have to lay my body here
and that best have a Doctor for I could not obtain faith
enough to be healed, so axidently there was a doctor who
came to see Mr. H. on business. The judge came with him.
So the Judge spoke as it would be good for the doctor to
examine me, so he done so. He pronounced me quite bad
much worse than I thought. My liver was affected and
other complaints, instead of feeling worse thinking I
surely would die, I finely thought the doctor did not
know anything although he was counted a skillful one. I
was disgusted and feeling ashamed of so little faith. I
wanted no more of him and thought I would trust in the
Lord God, that he made me and if he created me he surely
can heal me and from that time on I commenced to get
better and felt to trust in my heavenly father and very
day I grew better.
It was about this time that little Samuel was weaned. He kept
getting ear aches. There would be lots of prayers and occasionally
Mary Jane would put tobacco in his ear to ease the pain.
The Honolulu Conference
By the summer of 1854 Francis was a seasoned missionary. He
spoke the language fluently; he had learned the gospel; and he had
learned the human relations skills necessary to be a truly great
In July of 1854, Mary Jane, Little Franky, and Francis left
for Honolulu for a special conference. They were gone three weeks.
Little Samuel was left to be tended by Sister Gaston. It was a sad
parting. This, however, would be a very important conference. The
first missionaries to the Island were going home, so now Francis
would be one of the senior elders. Mary Jane felt sad at their
The voyage to Honolulu brought about sea sickness for Mary
Jane and little Franky. But everyone arrived in good spirits.
Mary Jane and little Franky stayed with Sister Lewis while Francis
and some of the other elders went on a four day trip to attend a
native conference. Mary Jane was somewhat confused in the city.
Honolulu was a big city, even for that day. When Francis returned,
he and Mary Jane enjoyed a walk around the city.
The Thursday July 27th Conference was a spiritual treat for
everyone. Talks were given under the direction of the Spirit, and
some spoke in tongues and prophesied. Francis was interpreter for
Brother Woodbury when he spoke in tongues. According to Mary Jane,
much of the spiritual instruction was to encourage the missionaries
and the saints to sustain Brother Lewis. Later at Brother Lewis's
house, the missionaries had what Mary Jane called a "blessing
meeting." Everyone in attendance received a blessing. Mary Jane
was particularly pleased with her blessing. The following is her
summary of her blessing:
. . . I never heard such blessings pronounced upon
any one as was there. When they called me to have my
blessing I thought there was not much but Mr. Hammond was
mouth. He poured out as good a blessing as I ever heard.
When he was through Bro. Karren blessed me seemingly as
if his heart was full blessings for me. When he was done
Bro. George blessed me, surprise to me that I would be a
mighty woman in Zion that there would be more struggling
than I thought I should have. I feel thankful that I
have had the privilege of having such blessing pronounced
on me and that the Elders have blessed me. May I ever be
blessed by them and Lord, that I may live a woman of God
praising him and giving him the praise in all things,
that I may prove faithful that I may be as Sarah of old,
That it may be said of me well done good and faithful
Francis was set apart as President over Maui and Lanai. Mary
Jane later commented: "He has got his hands full."
After the meeting, since Sister Lewis was in poor health, Mary
Jane attended to her and cooked the meals until Mary Jane and
Little Franky went home.
Francis gave those missionaries who were returning home
$410.00, and Mary Jane gave Brother Henry an additional $2.50.
Mary Jane would miss them, but she was glad to see them start for
home. Since Mary Jane and Francis were in the city, they took the
time to buy about $40.00 worth of supplies that they would need for
Mary Jane and little Franky left for home on the Schooner Moi,
but Francis stayed over in Honolulu to meet the new elders before
he took passage home.
Since they had been away from home for such a long time, there
was no food in the house, and Mary Jane was short on funds.
However, she had a chance to make a dress for a woman and quickly
re-establish herself at home.
Francis seemed pleased with their mission. They had worked
hard, and had found success, in spite of opposition and hardships.
They had received considerable opposition by emissaries of other
churches. In fact, these other Christians at one time almost
stopped the work entirely. The native converts to the Church at
first found it difficult to suppress the opposition. It was a sore
test for them.
The brethren worked with the government and the United States
Consul and was able to get full recognition for the church so that
it, too, received the same rights as other denominations. Francis
reported sometime in early months of 1853:
The missionaries [those representatives of the other
churches] succeeded in putting a stop to our labors, but
the government gave their full consent to our laboring
here, and the United State consul took an active part in
getting granted to us the same rights as the other
denominations, since which time the work has been
increasing rapidly and we now number about six hundred
members upon all the islands, four hundred and fifty of
them upon this island (i.e. Maui) : we baptized about two
hundred and fifty since Christmas, and the work is still
going ahead. 86
Although Francis does not give too many details of the
encounters associated with the activities related with the above
report, the reader does not have to have too vivid of an imagina-
tion to picture the scenes of meetings with the newly baptized
natives and prospective converts as Francis and his companions
appealed to the natives to hold fast. The scriptural discussions,
the bearing of testimonies, and the fastings and prayers confeder-
ated with these concerns were obviously dominating activities of
the missionaries for part of their mission. Francis shared these
apprehensions with Mary Jane. She lived every experience with him.
Francis had studied hard before he accepted the Gospel, but now, he
studied even harder as he defended it. During those five years on
the Islands, he became a mighty student of the scriptures and
preached with great conviction. What kinds of petitions and
reasonings did Francis and his brethren express to the various
government authorities and the United States Consul to win them
over? The Spirit of the Lord was with those earnest elders of the
Church, and the Lord blessed them and placed the appropriate words
in their mouths as they "fought the good fight." 87
Elder George Q. Cannon described the Hammond's contribution to
the work of the Lord:
Through the labors of Elder Hammond and his wife, a
branch of the Church was established in Waicher. All the
Elders who labored in that field have reason to remember
their kindness to them. Under their roof we always found
a warm welcome, and it was home, a home which men who
were constantly speaking the native language, living in
native houses, eating native food, could appreciate.
Sister Hammond's kindness, patience, and cheerfulness in
the midst of privations, and her untiring labors in our
behalf, to sew and make us comfortable, will never be
forgotten by those who enjoyed her hospitality. 88
As noted above, Francis continued to study the language.
Although he had become acquainted with it during his pre-church
membership as a businessman, he was not proficient in it in a
scholarly manner. It took him about a year to feel comfortable in
delivering his sermons. When the opportunity presented itself,
Francis received $20.00 for interpreting in the municipal courts.
This started taking place near the end of 1853. He was apparently
getting quite competent in the native language by then or he would
not have received such employment. Mary Jane also made mention of
Francis interpreting for a Judge Marston. Mary Jane told of his
receiving $20.00 for the service. 89 He assisted Elder Cannon with
the translation of the Book of Mormon into the native language.
They also translated some of Orson Pratt's pamphlets into the
indigenous tongue. Thus, as his mission progressed, Francis got
more comfortable in his discourses. His journal gives more details
of the talks and the occasions that he delivered them.
Francis frequently performed marriages. In fact, he had to
make occasional reports to the Hawaiian Department of Public
Instruction on the marriages performed by the elders of the
Church. 90 The Church had to get permission from the government in
order for the elders to perform these marriages. In correspondence
with William Farrar, Francis informed him that this permission had
been granted to the Church. 91 However, as the government became
aware of the official doctrine of the Church regarding polygamy,
this right to perform marriages by the elders was withdrawn. This
made it necessary for the elders to refer their marriages to
protestant ministers. It was an inconvenience that was vexing to
Francis referred to his conversations with a Reverend Baldwin.
The Reverend made persuasive attempts to bring one of his flock
back into his congregation after the former member had received the
witness of the restoration.
One day Francis visited another shoemaker. In his conversa-
tions with the shoemaker, Francis found out that he had once worked
for Francis's father back in Long Island. This incident may seem
a little insignificant, but it is an interesting entry in his
journal. It reminds the reader that Francis had his non-member
family members in mind all of the time, even in faraway Hawaii, and
he was certainly praying that they would eventually become
enlightened with the Gospel.
The health of his family was always a concern to Francis. He
kept his journal informed of their illnesses. He showed his
distress with every little cold that one of the children got.
Francis discussed in the same letter to Farrar the fact that
he was considering at one time a proposal to lease land for the
gathering of the island saints. President Brigham Young suggested
at one time that a gathering place on the islands be obtained for
the purpose of developing the saints in order that they could
withstand the persecution that was associated with joining the
Church. In the October conference of 1853 this became an official
action. Francis being a member of a committee of elders to find an
appropriate location suggested the Island of Lanai. He made some
contacts with Chief Haalelea in February of 1854 for the possi-
bility of leasing 4000 acres of land for this gathering. However,
the long-term investment made Francis reluctant at first to make
the commitment. The chief suggested that they lease the land for
the first four years without charge to see what could be accom-
plished. If, however, after four years they wanted to extend the
lease, rent for the land would then begin. Other locations were
considered, but the settlement on Lanai seemed to be the best
In other correspondence with William Farrar, Francis related
how a Brother Hauwalii was released from prison, a punishment for
which he was unjustly incarcerated. Francis also recounted how
some members were offered bribes to renounce their testimony. Only
one member accepted the bribe. He did it in order to get a
teaching job with one of the denomination schools.
When Francis first arrived in Lanai, he climbed to the top of
an ancient volcanic crater that overlooks the valley of Palawai.
He was impressed and felt that this was a good place to establish
a Zion in Hawaii. President Lewis and some of the others did not
agree. They felt that San Bernardino would be a better place. 93
Francis and Elders Green and Johnson went to Lanai in August
of 1854. Some of the Hawaiian saints were already there, ready to
start building a settlement. At the suggestion of Elder Johnson,
the Palawai Valley should be re-named the Valley of Ephraim and the
new city be called Joseph. This was accepted. They had prayer,
and commenced to build the Hawaiian Zion.
Most of the settlers on Lanai came from Kula and Wailuku.
Francis called them to this mission. They used the same pattern of
settlement that Brigham Young had used. Nevertheless, in spite of
the optimism, the settlement became a challenge. Sometimes there
was little food available, and they had difficulty getting water.
They dug wells, and were able to get some water from a spring
located some distance from the settlement. The settlers had
difficulty moving from Maui. They came by canoe or boat. Elder
Green organized the settlers once they arrived, but it was up to
Francis to give them the call and convince them to leave their
friends and start a new life in a difficult environment.
They planted a variety of crops: oats, barley sweet potatoes,
Irish potatoes, wheat, peas, beans, bananas, squash, and corn.
They tried various methods and times of planting. Some were
successful, and some were not. However, the settlers were plagued
by erratic weather -- floods and drouth. Elder Green had some
difficulty communicating with the natives and was impatient with
In October of 1854, Francis received word from President Lewis
that Elder Karren would be in charge of the settlement. Francis
was offended over this. He felt that it was because of his
disagreements over what was to be planted.
Benjamin Johnson had also had a disagreement with Francis over
some of the crops, particularly the planting of tobacco. Johnson
felt that it would be a good money crop which would provide the
means to help the people get in good financial standing. However,
Francis, was of the opinion that this was inconsistent with the
Word of Wisdom teachings, besides tobacco depletes the nourishment
of the land more quickly than the other crops .
Francis had no difficulty with Elder Karren, and he resolved
to submit himself to the assignment in the interest of the work.
Francis sought the help of the Lord that he might overlook the
affront. Incidently, there is no record, however, of tobacco being
planted in the settlement. 95
In order to improve the communication between the islands for
the settlers on Lanai, Francis purchased a whaleboat. It proved to
be too small, and later he purchased a larger vessel. Because
funds were limited, they bought a poorly designed sloop from a
German convert by the name of Baumann. Although Francis noted the
ships liabilities, he felt that it would meet the needs of the
settlers. Francis also described how difficult it was to maneuver
the unwieldy craft. However, being the skilled seaman that he was,
Francis was able to make it do the job.
Francis and Mary Jane moved to Lanai in 1855. Francis
continued to work with Elder Green in an attempt to bring the
farming into better productivity. Things were going pretty well
for Francis, and he felt that the industry of the settlement would
soon be flourishing.
Francis took the leadership in building several meeting
houses. He mentioned the dimensions of one of them: 36 x 18 feet.
As will be noted later in this writing, when he returned to Utah,
Francis continued leading out in these enterprises .
Another son was born on 31 March 1855. He was named Fletcher
Bartlett. Like little Samuel, he was delivered through the aid of
the native sisters.
Their mission was an exalted experience for Francis and Mary
Jane. "By all accounts, Elder Hammond must be reckoned as one of
the more important contributors to the establishment of the Church
in Hawaii . n96
They had worked hard and diligently carried out their calling;
but after five years, Francis and Mary Jane were looking forward to
going home. They left on 25 April 1856 at 4:00 p.m. after they had
bid melancholy good-by's to all of their friends. Some of the
members gave them some money to assist in their passage. The
passage for a very small cabin was $190.00. Mary Jane was sea-sick
quite a bit of the time. During the passage, they had some
unpleasant words with Captain Lawton, the ship's captain. Mary
Jane did not like his company. He was constantly harassing them
During the journey, Francis tended "the little ones" while
Mary Jane lay sick in the small cabin. And one day a rather
dramatic incident took place. One of the Chinese men on the ship
threatened to jump over-board because of the bad treatment that he
was receiving from his master. He even went so far as to throw his
clothes and belongings over the side. However, he was finally
persuaded not to carry out his threat. He did get everyone's
attention and made everyone aware of his plight.
Francis, continued to demonstrate his navigation and ship
sailing skills. One entry related that they were at 31 degrees 18
minutes north latitude and about 1300 miles from San Francisco.
Francis got along very well with the first mate, and he had a
chance to explain the Gospel to him as well as some of the other
passengers who did not want to argue with him about polygamy.
San Francisco to Santa Barbara
They arrived 11 April 1856 in San Francisco. Francis said he
was glad to be back in "the land of Joseph." On the 12th of April,
he reported to Elder Cannon. Elder Cannon had left the islands and
returned to California in the summer of 1854. In the interim
between his arrival in California and Francis's arrival in San
Francisco, Elder Cannon had returned to Utah, married, and again
came back to San Francisco. George Q. Cannon returned to
California to assist Parley P. Pratt in establishing a Church paper
in San Francisco and to succeed Elder Pratt as the President of the
California and Oregon Mission. Elder Cannon had an office in San
Francisco on Montgomery Street. The paper established was called
the Western Standard, a four column, royal folio weekly. 97
There was great joy as these two missionary companions were
again appreciating each other's company. They obviously exchanged
reminiscences of their missionary experiences, and Francis brought
Elder Cannon up-to-date with the events in Hawaii that had taken
place since he left. Mary Jane enjoyed the sociality of Sister
Cannon. While waiting passage to San Bernardino, Francis and Mary
Jane attended church, spoke in meetings, bore their testimonies,
and Francis worked in the printing office assisting where he could.
A member gave Francis a $3.00 gold piece in oirder to aid him and
his family the rest of the way home.
Francis and his family left San Francisco on a steamer and
docked at Santa Barbara and Monterey before the final docking at
San Pedro. Captain Jefferson Hunt, former company commander of A
Company of the Mormon Battalion and at that time a member of the
first California legislature, provided them with transportation to
San Bernardino, a thriving Mormon colony at that time.
They spent the winter in San Bernardino. Francis established
his shoe business again, hoping to recoup some of their finances
before returning home. He and Mary Jane participated in church
assignments and the social life in this settlement. Francis soon
was prospering, and by spring he was able to purchase a team and
wagon and start back to their home in the Salt Lake Valley.
Francis made the necessary preparations for the journey. He made
harnesses for his own team as well as for others of the company
The last leg of the trip began 18 April 1857, and again
traversed the hot desert. Along with the burden of this arduous
trip, Mary Jane was again pregnant. It would be no pleasure ride
for her to bump along in that covered wagon over treacherous roads .
This time their family was larger. The children were still too
small to contribute much to the labor associated with this trip.
This covered wagon was no family station wagon or van, and the
children got tired and restless as they plugged along mile after
mile in that hot desert.
When they got to Cottonwood Springs on the Santa Clara River
in Washington County, a new daughter came to the Hammond family.
She was born 18 May 1857 just one month after they left San
Bernardino and was named Mary Moiselle. So the last three hundred
miles presented to Mary Jane the additional burden of caring for a
There was sorrow among the company during that three hundred
miles. Brother Rich lost his little daughter when the pioneer
company arrived at Mountain Meadows. A few months later, a great
tragedy took place in that same location that came to be known as
"the mountain meadows massacre."
Finally, exactly one month after Mary Moiselle was born, the
Hammonds arrived at 4:00 p.m. on 18 June of 1857 at their home at
Brighton on Big Cottonwood.
Within days after their arrival, they visited with Mother
Dilworth. What a joy for Mary Jane to embrace her mother again.
What joy for Sister Dilworth to get acquainted with three grand-
children for whom she had never met. Since he was only six months
old when the missionaries left six years earlier, little Franky did
not remember his grandmother. He and his grandmother also needed
to get reacquainted.
After their visit with Sister Dilworth, a day was arranged for
Francis to report his mission to Brigham Young. Then on 26 June,
he took a trip north to look over Weber Valley. He was already
thinking of a move north.
Francis was now thirty-five years old and Mary Jane was
twenty-six. They left as newly weds, but now older and more
mature, their experiences had tested and proved them.
THE UTAH WAR AND FRANCIS'S INTRODUCTION TO POLYGAMY
As Francis and Mary Jane entered into Utah after being absent
for six years, they obviously noted the changes in the settlements:
they had increased in population, more land was under cultivation,
trees were planted and were able to offer some shade -- some of
these trees were the large popular trees that were to become so
commonplace throughout the state as windbreaks. A few of the
settlers remembered Francis and Mary Jane as they trudged south six
years before. On Francis's return, he noted new settlements that
were not in existence when they took that first leg of their
journey to Hawaii. As they journeyed up through the state, Mary
Jane and her new baby received solicitous attention. The conversa-
tions with the settlers involved Francis reporting the progress of
the work of the Lord in the Islands, and the settlers in turn
brought Francis up-to-date regarding the events that had transpired
in the settlements during the past six years.
Among the events that had taken place in the territory during
Francis and Mary Jane's absence besides the expanded settlements
was the establishment of the first state capital in Fillmore. When
they returned to Salt Lake City, they saw a greatly augmented city,
with some notable new buildings: the famous Social Hall, the
Seventies Hall of Science, and a tabernacle which was on the site
of the present Assembly Hall. This building was inadequate before
it was completed, and a large bower was attached to it. The
Endowment House was completed in 1855; in 1852 ground was broken
for the Temple; and a large wall had been built around Temple
Francis must have shown considerable interested in the details
of the Indian Wars of 1853. Francis read the months old newspaper
reports in the Deseret News that the missionaries belatedly read
when they received the newspapers in the mail. On his journey up
through the territory, the settlers along the way gave him a full
account of these events. The major occurrences of these wars took
place in the Nephi and the Provo area.
The Utah War
While Francis was on his mission, political events in Utah and
the nation brought about a clash between the federal government and
the territory. These events would personally involve him, and they
continued to involve him after his return. Francis became
personally immersed in what has come to be called "The Utah War."
The events leading to this clash were the untruthful reports
of the various gentile factions in the state and the federally
appointed political appointees to the newly established Utah
Territory. It was these politicians 's desire to use the federal
territorial offices in the territory to exercise control over the
territory, its citizens, and the Church, and to bring discredit
upon the Church and its leaders. The saints resisted any en-
croachment by the federal government that would limit their right
of local self-government. These conflicts were amplified through
the improper conduct of many of the appointed officials and their
hypocritical denunciation of polygamy. Some of these appointees
were living immoral and adulterous lives. These administrators
with the help of the anti-Mormon press issued false reports to
Washington. Their fraudulent reports stirred up the political
opportunists in Washington. These opportunists under the leader-
ship of the adulterous Judge William W. Drummond were able to
create a political attitude in Washington that brought about the
decision made by the President of the United States, James B.
Buchanan, of sending an army to Utah in order to put down the so
called rebellion of the Mormons. 98
In July of 1857 the saints were celebrating the 10th anni-
versary of the first settlers in the Salt Lake Valley. This
celebration took place at Silver Lake in Big Cottonwood Canyon.
There were 2,587 people in attendance along with 364 carriages and
wagons, 1028 horses and mules, and 332 oxen and cows. Bands and
militia were there from as far away as Ogden." Francis, his
family, and his means of transportation were among those listed
The sending of an army to Utah from Fort Leavenworth, Kansas
was done as furtively as possible by Washington. However, Abraham
0. Smoot and 0. P. Rockwell, who had mail contracts with the
government and had come in contact with some of the advanced party
of the expedition, found out the plans and destination of the cam-
paign. Rockwell was heading east and Smoot was heading west. When
they met about 100 miles east of Fort Laramie and compared their
intelligence, Rockwell decided to return with Smoot. At Fort
Laramie, Smoot, Rockwell, and Judson Stoddard organized themselves
to get the news to Brigham Young as soon as possible. About noon,
on the 24th of July the news was delivered to President Young. The
celebration continued and ended that evening with prayers. 100
Francis and his family were part of this. We do not have many
details from Francis in giving his own personal account of these
festivities. We have to learn of them through regular historical
accounts. Nevertheless, Francis and his family were part of them.
He joined the Utah militia or as he called it "the standing army."
His experience in this event was in Echo canyon. It was here that
some of the more exciting things took place. Although, there were
no casualties inflicted by either side, those taking part in the
skirmishes and guard detail, certainly felt the anxiety associated
with the maneuvering of the two hostile forces that were confront-
ing one another.
On 15 September 1857 Governor Young declared martial law, and
Francis, along with twelve hundred and fifty other men became a
force that maintained the security of Echo Canyon.
The details of Francis's participation in this very important
historical event of the Church are unavailable. But he witnessed
and participated in many of the dramatic events that took place in
Echo Canyon during the winter of 1858. Francis said that he spent
the time "standing guard."
While he was "standing guard, " exchanging information and
stories with his fellow members of the standing army, the following
things were taking place:
In October under the direction of Danniel H. Wells, the
Commander in chief of the Utah militia, the saints' active
operations against the expedition began. Small companies of men
were scouting and over-watching the various approaches to the
valley. They burned the grass on these approaches, making it
difficult for the approaching expedition to feed its horses and
other livestock. The various commanders of these forays annoyed
the expedition in ways that did not endanger their men. Before the
expedition arrived at Fort Supply and Fort Bridger, both of these
forts were burned. The most colorful actions were experienced by
Major Lot Smith and his men. They burned supply trains and ran off
stock and became a considerable nuisance in hindering the advance
of the expedition. 101
The militia used ruses and false reports to confuse the
expedition. When Major Taylor was captured by Colonel Alexander's
men, he reported to him that there were twenty to thirty thousand
men in the Utah militia. This was a considerable exaggeration. It
made it difficult for the expedition to get accurate intelligence
on the Mormons. In addition, the Lord sent an early winter, and
that aided the saints . This pre-mature season brought considerable
suffering to the men of the expedition. When winter had finally
set in and the Utah expedition was imprisoned in deep snow, the
forces in Echo Canyon withdrew to the valley and enjoyed a pleasant
winter of festivities and blessings. The Lord was truly fighting
the Church's battles.
The next spring, Francis moved his family south to Payson.
This was a temporary move. During the negotiations for bringing
Johnston's Army into Utah, most of the saints were in the process
of migrating south. When the army came through Salt Lake, the city
was deserted, Francis and his family were part of this migration.
After the negotiations between the Church authorities and the
"Utah Peace Commission" a period of normalcy was established, and
Francis moved his family back to Salt Lake and then to Ogden. The
reader will remember that a few days after his return home from his
mission that he took a trip to Weber Valley. He must have had this
move to Ogden on his mind for some time.
The Move to Ogden
After his move to Ogden, in March of 1859 Francis went into
the "business of manufacturing leather boots and shoes, saddles and
harnesses" with General Chauncy W. West. General West was also the
bishop of the Ogden Ward and he chose Francis to be one of his
councilors in the bishopric. They had their business on what is
now the north east corner of 24th Street and Grant Avenue. 102
While in Ogden Francis was a member of the city council and
the justice of the peace.
Three children came to the Hammond home while they lived in
Ogden: George Albert, 25 July 1857; William Edmund, 11 August 1861;
and Lizzie Fontella, 28 December 1863.
On 26 July 1864 a big reorganization took place in Francis and
Mary Jane's lives. Francis, as commanded by the prophet, entered
into the practice of polygamy. Francis justifies his actions as
At this time the Lord revealed the principle of
plural marriage to the Prophet . Thru Brigham Young the
brethern were commanded to enter into this practice,
which they did inall vertue and purity of heart despite
the consequent animosity and prejudices of the worldly
people. On July 26 1864 I took a second wife as a plural
marriage. She was a young English girl and converted to
the church. She was born 30 Sept 1845 in SouthPort
England. She was the fifth child of a family of eleven.
She had been working in the home of George Q. Cannon and
Lorin Farr homes. Her name was Alice Howard. 103
Mary Jane and Francis no doubt talked about this a great deal.
Both were aware of the doctrine of polygamy from the beginning.
Francis, as you remember, was startled by the practice when he
first found out about it in his introduction to Parley P. Pratt.
However, he resolved the problem to his spiritual satisfaction but
probably did not entertain the thought that he himself would
someday enter into the practice.
Francis and Mary Jane were on their mission when the formal
practice was announced at the general conference held 29 August
1852. Up until this time, only selected leaders were involved in
the practice, but it was an embarrassment to the wives of these
leaders, and it put them in a perplexing predicament. Therefore
the leaders decided to make the announcement official. In the
quote above, Francis, no doubt had reference to the time of August
1852 when he said "at this time the Lord revealed. ..."
While in Hawaii, Francis had to deal with this problem among
the converts as well as the various clergy. Mary Jane suffered
some indignities regarding polygamy from the ship's captain on the
return voyage. Some of the new converts, particularly in England
had more difficulty understanding the principle, and many of them
left the Church.
Now, the burden of polygamy would come to Francis and Mary
Jane. The practice of polygamy was received by the leaders in the
beginning in a very traumatic manner. But once they realized that
it was the Lord's will, they tried to diligently live up to the
commandment . 104
Alice Howard had been working in the homes of George Q. Cannon
and Lorin Farr. George Q. Cannon had recently been ordained an
apostle, and Lorin Farr was the Ogden stake president. Upon their
arrival in Utah, many young women converts from Europe were without
places to stay. At first they were placed in homes of _ the more
prosperous brethren as domestics. This was the case with Alice
Howard. Francis had demonstrated his ability as a business man.
This was noted as far back as his conversion in San Francisco when
Sam Brannan importuned Francis to go into business with him.
Bishop West noted his business acumen along with the other leaders
— President Farr and Elder Cannon. Francis along with being _ a
member of a bishopric was also trusted with a number of civic
responsibilities as noted above. It is logical then, that Francis
received his calling into polygamy by some of the most influential
leaders in the Church. What part in the discussion did Mary Jane
have. No doubt she accepted the calling with reluctance, but felt
it her duty to obey. For ten years this had been a topic of
discussion between Mary Jane and Francis. Now the time had come.
No doubt it was a reluctant calling on both their parts. But they
had been prepared for it.
Alice Howard was the daughter of Richard Howard and Mary Ann
Johnson and was born 30 September 1845 at Southport, Lancaster,
England. She was the fifth child in her family. She also had five
brothers and five sisters. The family joined the church in about
1858, just shortly before her father's death. The family struggled
economically. Her father and her brother worked in the coal mines
and had a coal business. This business was just across the street
from where they lived in Southport. Alice began working early in
her life as a domestic in the homes of the aristocracy. She was 13
years old when her father died and 17 years old when her mother
Alice demonstrated her devotion to the church by her persis-
tent attendance to her meetings in spite of the long distance she
would have to walk.
It was in 1863 when Alice and some of her brothers and sisters
decided to come to Utah. Her older sister Hannah, her younger
sister Elinor, and her younger brothers Hyrum and Richard migrated
together. Those members of the family who stayed behind were
Catherine, Henry, Jenny, Heber, and Elizabeth. Her older brother,
Hugh, was a cripple. When he came to Utah is difficult to
determine; but Alice nursed him while he was in the hospital.
In spite of the separation, the family was close. They
expressed their love for each other in letters that would go
between the two divisions of the family. The children faced all
the hardships of crossing the planes that every pioneer of that
time faced. It was in George Q. Cannon's company that they were
assigned while completing their last part of the trek. Alice was
the mother to little six year-old Richard during this journey.
When the children arrived in Utah, Elder Hill and Bishop Moon
took care of them and gave them homes for a time. Alice lived at
i the hospital while nursing her brother Hugh; and as mentioned
above, later she worked in the family of George Q. Cannon and Lorin
Farr. Having worked as a professional domestic in England in the
homes of many of the aristocracy, Alice no doubt impressed Elder
Cannon and Brother Farr with her skills as a domestic. With these
kinds of connections -- Elder Cannon and President Farr -- it is
easy to see how Alice was eventually to become a very important
part of Francis's life. 105
Just three months after this marriage was performed in the
Endowment House in Salt Lake City, Francis was called on another
mission to Hawaii by Brigham Young, along with Elder George
Nebeker. The purpose of this mission was to purchase six thousand
acres of ground to settle the Hawaiian saints.
During these three initial polygamous months, there must have
been some difficult adjustments to make among the members of the
Hammond family, but obviously, Mary Jane and Alice worked things
out. However, Francis was encouraged to take his new wife with him
on his second mission. Francis left, with the intention of later
sending for Alice. One account suggests "But Mary Jane took
matters into her own hands, borrowed money and traveled to the
Islands to join her husband." 106 However according to Whitney, 107
Mary Jane spent the summer of 1865 with her children in Salt Lake
City while Francis was in the Islands. Young said that while in
Salt Lake at this time that Mary Jane taught school in the 19th
Ward. 108 Alice worked in the home of Lorin Farr until Francis re-
turned. 109 Mary Alice Hammond Sorensen stated:
Shortly after marrying my mother he [Francis] was
called on his second mission to the Hawaiian Islands and
was advised to take his young wife with him. He went
ahead intending to send for her later, but when he was
gone his first wife Mary Jane took matters into her own
hands, borrowed the money and followed her husband to the
Islands, leaving my mother to work for her living. 110
Mary Sorensen wrote this many years after. She must have
received this information from others. Mary Jane used the words
"took matters in her own hands" and so does Whitney. It is
difficult to determine who the source was for this information.
Francis, later in his journal in 1883 made reference to his
returning home from this mission: "I found my family all well. My
wife Mary Jane and children had spent the summer in Salt Lake City,
she teaching school. My wife Alice had remained at President Lorin
Farrs . "
Sometimes the competition between polygamous families would
bring about miss -information. However, Mary Alice Hammond Sorens-
en, emphasized to the author's mother Hannah Marie Sorensen
Adamson, a granddaughter of Francis and daughter of Mary Alice
Hammond Sorensen, that Mary Alice became very upset if any unkind
words were ever said about Mary Jane Dilworth Hammond. Mary Alice
was named after both her mother and her step-mother. When Mary
Alice's mother died at an early age, Mary Jane was very solicitous
to the children who became orphans of her husband's second wife.
Mary Alice was also a sincere supporter of the doctrine of plural
What ever this inconsistency of these reported events, it is
likely that Mary Jane did remain in Utah until Francis completed
his second mission.
FRANCIS'S SECOND MISSION
After Francis had left Hawaii in 1856, the Hawaiian Mission
declined in spiritual strength. The Hawaiian saints began to die
spiritually. The Utah War, for which Francis had been a partici-
pant, effected the Church in the islands. In 1857, the elders were
called home. Brigham Young was advised that the Hawaiian saints
would be able to survive on their own.
On Lanai, the gathering place for which Francis had worked so
hard to establish, the saints continued to subsist, probably
continuing to rent the land from Haalelea. This was a period of
apostasy, and the tyranny of Walter Murray Gibson added to the
spiritual decay of the mission. When Francis arrived in Hawaii on
his second mission and received the report of what had taken place
in Lanai, he must have been saddened by the spiritual and
organizational devastation that Gibson had brought to the Island.
Gibson was an adventurer. He had long had the ambition to
establish himself a kingdom. The Church's predicament in Hawaii
provided fertile ground for Gibson's ambitions. He felt that the
Mormon's would do well to move from Utah to one of the Islands in
New Guinea. Even before he joined the Church, Gibson tried to
convince Brigham Young of the advantage of the Church making this
relocation. He joined the Church shortly after he arrived in Salt
Lake City, and judging by his future actions, he feigned sincerity,
and he was called on a mission to the Eastern States. He did not
finish his mission, but returned to Salt Lake and received Brigham
Young's blessing to be a missionary to Japan and Malaysia. Enroute
to Japan and Malaysia, he stayed in the Hawaiian Islands, denied he
was a Mormon to officials and reporters but in the company of the
saints claimed the title of mission president. His reports to
Brigham Young were false and inaccurate. He sold offices in the
Church and set up a perverted organization.
Gibson reorganized Lanai, bought 3000 acres from Haalelea, and
did everything he could to extract from the saints and improve his
own lot. He sold Church property on the other Islands and kept the
money for himself. He literally stole the island of Lanai from the
Finally, some of the more faithful Hawaiian elders wrote to
former missionaries, and the Church became aware of Gibson's true
activities and motives. Elders Ezra T. Benson and Lorenzo Snow and
others went to Hawaii in 1864 to set the Church in order. They
soon recognized Gibson's apostasy and perfidy, and he was excommu-
nicated. Because of the expense of litigation, Elder Joseph F.
Smith, who was left in charge of the mission, decided not to try
and get through litigation the title to the Lanai land restored.
Gibson soon was left with the Palawai plantation, but he no longer
had subservient saints to do his bidding. However, he had done a
great deal of damage to the spiritual structure of the Church. 111
A New Gathering Place
In 1864, Elder Joseph F. Smith reorganized and set in order
the Church. There were rebaptisms and renewal of commitments.
Elder Smith recommended a new gathering place, and in the October
1864 Conference, Brigham Young extended the call to Francis and
George Nebeker to find a new gathering place for the saints on
Hawaii — not that Lanai had been an incorrect decision in the
first place on the part of the Church. The reader will remember
that Francis felt good about the decision to settler Lanai; but
with the perfidy of Gibson, as in the translation of the Book of
Mormon, the Lord had his own ways of dealing with those who would
thwart his work. The reason for a new gathering place was to dis-
tance the Church from the bad Gibson experience and associated
disillusionments. Francis and Brother Nebeker were made co-
presidents of the mission, and the new gathering place would be
purchased with a loan from the Church and would be in the names of
Francis and Brother Nebeker. The reason for placing the lands in
the names of Francis and Brother Nebeker was because the "Anti-
bigamy Law" of 1862. This law not only made it unlawful to
practice polygamy, but it also prohibited churches in the terri-
tories of the United States to own property that exceeded fifty
thousand dollars. Therefore, it was imprudent for the title of the
land to be in Brigham Young's name. 112
However, prior to Francis's and Elder Nebeker 's arrival in
Hawaii, Elder William W. Cluff had a very unusual experience. He
was enjoying the beauty of the Laie Plantation, and during his
contemplating the loveliness of his surroundings he saw Brigham
Young walking along the path. Elder Cluff recognized him and they
talked to each other about the pleasant surroundings. They
discussed how Elder Cluff had searched for weeks to find a suitable
place for the saints to settle. Brigham Young spent a few moments
enjoying the beauty of the land and its geography. Then he
indicated to Elder Cluff that this was a good place for the
Hawaiian Saints to gather. And then President Young was gone.
Elder Cluff then went over to the owner, Thomas T. Dougherty and
discussed the property. 113 Whether Francis was aware of this
incident, it is difficult to know. If he did, it may have
influenced him in his decision, especially after he and Elder
Nebeker had made a thorough study of the real estate possibilities.
Nevertheless, the way was prepared by the Lord for Francis to make
This policy of providing a new gathering place would help the
saints to regain their confidence in the Church after the unpleas-
ant Gibson experience. President Young hoped that the new
gathering place would provide an economical way to help the saints
purchase land. In a letter to King L. Kamehameha V from Brigham
Young, dated 24 March 1865, President Young stated the purpose of
The departure of Francis A. Hammond, Esq. , a
resident of this Territory and a gentleman with whom I
have been long acquainted, for your Majesty's dominions,
affords me an opportunity of writing of which I gladly
avail myself, as I am desirous of making explanation to
your Majesty in relation to the expected operations of
Mr. Hammond and his colleagues in the midst of your
Majesty's subjects. Mr. Hammond and his friends, (who
will follow him in a few weeks with their families) go
from this Territory with the intention of locating upon
lands in your Majesty's Kingdom. They will go there as
religious teachers; but while this is their calling they
will not confine their labors to spiritual matters only.
According to the precepts of our religion, the
spiritual and temporal are so intimately blended, that we
view no salvation, or system of salvation, as being
complete which does not provide means for the welfare and
preservation of the body as well as the salvation of the
spirit. The spirit and the body are both the product of
our Heavenly Father and God, and they are both the
objects of His solicitude and care, as is fully proved by
the pains which the Lord took to teach our Father Adam in
the beginning and by the laws which he afterward fre-
quently gave unto his people upon temporal subjects. Mr.
Hammond and my other friends who will labor in conjunc-
tion with him, will therefore endeavor to teach your
Majesty's Kingdom, and that object is: the benefit of
your Majesty's subjects; and we fully believe that with
proper management and the encouragement and protection
which the Constitution and laws of your Majesty's Kingdom
extend to other settlers, this can be done and the people
be taught the arts of industry and self-preservation and
be benefited morally and physically without involving a
pecuniary outlay that will not be in the end amply
Sire: As the King and father of your people, it
will be a cause of heartfelt pleasure to myself and
friends to have your Majesty's sanction and approbation
of this enterprise upon which they are about to enter for
the amelioration of your Majesty's subjects. Should this
effort -- which is, I think, wisely limited to a small
field, to commence with -- be likely to prove successful,
operations will be gradually with your Majesty's approval
-- extended to wider fields.... 114
Brigham Young then continues in his letter explaining to the
king the relationship that his subjects have to the Book of Mormon
and to the House of Israel. Because of this special relationship
of the king's people to the Book of Mormon Israelites as well as to
the rest of the House of Israel, Brigham Young makes an appealing
case for the reason that Francis and his colleagues have such a
sincere interest in the King's very special subjects. Brigham
Young makes mention of his desire and the desire of Francis and his
associates to uphold the allegiance of the king's subjects to him.
Everything that Francis would be doing would be to promote the
well-being of the Kings's subjects.
It will be a pleasure to my friends, in their
comparatively limited sphere, to cooperate with your
Majesty in advancing the well-being and development of
your people. Their aim will be to gather the people at
a suitable place or places, and inculcate in them good
morals and how they can best be elevated from their
present low condition to a state of enlightenment that
will make them suitable associates for the most refines.
They will take special pains to impress upon them the
absolute necessity there exists for them to observe such
laws as will stop their decrease and enable them to
perpetuate their race. there is no reason why they
should perish and their lands become the property of the
stranger. the same God watches over and cares for all
His children. ... My friends will endeavor to open schools
for their benefit, teach them trades and the arts of
industry by which they may learn to know and appreciate
the value of the favored country which providence has
assigned them as a habitation.
...I have advised my friends to be guided by your
Majesty's political affairs, and whenever they shall be
advised of your Majesty's wishes on these points, they
will be happy to carry them into effect.
In planting this mission in your Majesty's kingdom
we have no political purpose to subserve. My friends
will seek for no power of this kind. ... It will be their
constant effort, in their intercourse with the people, to
sustain the power of the throne and to recognize and
uphold your Majesty's Kingly authority to the fullest
possible extent. 115
Back to Hawaii
In November of 1864, Francis and George Nebeker left Salt Lake
city for Hawaii -- for the mission for which they were called.
They arrived on 23 December 1864. They were greeted warmly, and
Francis renewed friendships with old friends. Perhaps Francis was
reminded of the blessing that Elder Cannon had given to him on his
first mission: "I was told that I should be blessed in my mission
upon these islands; that I should be blessed in teaching the truth
to the inhabitants of the Isles; that they should seek me for
council, and mighty should be the words which should flow from my
lips . " Francis was encouraged in that he could still speak the
language. In fact, he spoke in the next sacrament meeting.
Francis and Brother Nebeker began their search for property
immediately. This was a good time to buy land. The end of the
American Civil War brought a depression in land values. The sugar
industry was not too prosperous at the time, and the use of
kerosene ended the need for whale oil and brought about the demise
of the whaling industry 116 -- the industry that had brought
Francis to the islands in the first place.
In searching for land, Francis and Brother Nebeker pursued
their undertaking at Kuaai during the first part of January. They
then went back to Honolulu, having gained considerable information
about the land market. They concluded that there would be no
difficulty in purchasing the land. Francis and Brother Nebeker
decided that Brother Nebeker should return to Salt Lake and report
their findings to Brigham Young. Brother Nebeker would also seek
out couple missionaries who would be willing to teach the natives
how to support themselves and pursue their perfection through the
practice of the gospel principles. Francis stayed behind and
bought the land.
Just prior to Brother Nebeker' s departure, Francis received a
letter from Mary Jane. It was reported in the letter that every-
thing was well, except for the baby. The baby had been ill.
Francis sent a letter in reply back to Mary Jane with Brother
Francis's own account gives an excellent representation of
what took place after the two men parted.
On Jan. 20 1865, I talked to Thomas Dougherty who
owned 6000 acres of land on the North side of Oahu. His
Plantation was called "Laie." After I visited the
plantation, I met with Mr Dougharty and made an offer to
buy. I offered him $12,000.00 for "Laie" with all the
stock, horses and improvements. He would not take less
than $14,000.00. After time to think it over I decided
it was a good buy. I agreed to send him a draft for
$3,000.00, in ten weeks from said date and pay $5,000.00,
more by the last of July 1865 and $6,000.00 in two years
from date bearing, at 12 percent annum -- giving a
mortgage on the place for security. I take possession
Immediately. I felt I had made a good bargain. The
plantation was wedge shaped and had three miles of coast
line and ran to the top of the Koolau Range behind.
There was sufficient water, many head of livestock, 600
cattle, 500 sheep, 250 goats, and 20 horses. A large
frame house and five Hawaiian houses all furnished. Five
acres of cotton that promised to bear a crop. It was
close to the Capitol City only 35 miles from Honolulu —
also it had a active branch of seventy, Latter Day
Saints. I made arrangements for someone to look after
the place while I take passage for Salt Lake City to get
draft and make all the closing deal on Jan 30 1865. 117
West Hammond, a grandson of Francis', related not only in an
interview with the author but also in his memoirs the following:
...They [leaders of the Church] gave him a thick
belt to go around his body to hold his trousers up, and
this belt was two layers, and so he put inside this belt
gold coins, $25 and $50 gold coins. When he left, the
Prophet said, "Now Brother Hammond, don't you ever take
your eye off that belt. Keep it in mind because it's
very valuable. This is the money to pay down on a
payment on some land, and you are to select that land.
We'll trust you and accept whatever you do."
Well, he had his camp, his bed and so forth, it was
carried on a freighter they went over on, and he had his
bunk out on the ship. And he thought, "Now, if I never
take this belt off somebody might become suspicious of
it." So, once in a while, he'd take the belt off and lay
it down by his bunk, by his roll of bedding, but he was
always close by to keep an eye on the belt. 118
Little did Francis realize that someday on this land would be
the cite of a great university and a temple.
While Francis was purchasing the land, as agreed, Brother
Nebeker had been arranging for other missionaries to come and
settle on Laie. Francis passed these missionaries on his way to
Salt Lake. They were Ephraim and Mary Green, James and Harriet
Lawson, Hi and Louise Bell, and William and Emma Wright. Francis
said the men had served in Hawaii during 1850. Others in the
company who had never been in Hawaii were Charles and Mary Boyden,
Alfren and Mildres Randall, Caleb and World with six children,
Philip Pugsley, Marie Louise Nebeker, Mary Ellen Cluff , and Lalitha
Smith. " 119
Francis Reports to Brigham Young
Upon returning to Salt Lake, Francis reported to Brigham Young
and informed him of his activities in the islands and of the land
purchase. At first President Young felt that the price of the land
might have been a little high, but after further consideration he
deemed it a good thing, that later the land would probably be very
valuable. How prophetic. President Young also liked the idea of
the saints raising cotton and sugar cane. These crops might later
help the saints in Utah.
This temporary stay in Utah, gave Francis a chance to visit
his family and check on his business interests. His narrative
related that "My families, Ward, and farming seemed to have been
taken care of in good shape while I have been away. Thanks to my
good wife Mary Jane." He took care of some of his affairs and
prepared for his return trip to Hawaii. It was at this time that
President Young wrote the above mentioned letter to King Kameha-
Establishing the Colony
On 24 March 1865, he set out for San Francisco via Overland
Coach, and from San Francisco, he sailed to Hawaii. This time he
would be gone for several months.
While Francis had been in Utah, the brethren in Hawaii had
been busy planting. Some of the crops were troubled "with insects
and bad weather." However, the corn and cotton were doing well.
It was during this initial few weeks on the island that
Francis acquainted himself with Island law and policy in order to
prepare himself to visit the "Kings Court." Francis in his
narrative informs his readers that "The Laws of the kingdom allowed
religious toleration." However, the King and his advisors informed
Francis that this toleration did not apply to Latter-day Saints.
As quoted in Francis's narrative:
"As long as your friends limit themselves to
carrying on their agricultural and mechanical operations"
wrote John Domis the Kings private secretary and
husband of Queen Liliuokalani, "they will be protected in
their industry, but they can never be recognized here on
a footing with Christian missionaries as teachers." 120
Although the Mormons would not "be recognized. . . on a footing
with Christian missionaries as teachers, " Francis went to work
organizing the settlement. He started the settlers building roads
and fences. He made decisions regarding the kinds of crops to be
planted, divided the stock, and sold some of it. Along with
setting the temporal affairs in order, Francis also taught the
saints the spiritual requirements for having a successful Zion on
With his work finished, Francis left the mission to Elder
Nebeker. Elder Nebeker and his wife, Marie, spent several years in
Hawaii advancing the work of the Lord. On 18 May 1865 Francis
returned home to Utah.
The early years of the growth of the settlement turned out to
be years of economic struggle. However, Elder Nebeker was
dedicated to his assignment. Francis was inspired in his purchase
of the land. Years later, during his exile from Utah, President
Joseph F. Smith, then second counselor in the First Presidency,
prophesied of the great things that were to take place on the
little Zion, there in the islands of the sea. 121
Eventually, a temple and a great university were built upon
these lands. Visitors from all over the world have felt the power
of the Spirit of the Lord when they visit these sacred grounds.
Great truths have been and are taught from the environs of the
university, and the sacred things of the Lord are revealed to his
people in his holy temple.
THE MOVE TO HUNTSVILLE
In October of 1865, shortly after his return from his second
mission to Hawaii, Francis and his family moved to Huntsville. He
was called to be the presiding elder of that little community with
William S. Lish and David McKay as his counselors.
Founder of Huntsville
Huntsville was named after Captain Jefferson Hunt, Company A
commander of the Mormon Battalion. The reader is reminded that
Francis probably first met Captain Hunt at San Bernardino when he
and his family disembarked from the ship after leaving San
Francisco on their way home from their Hawaiian mission. Captain
Hunt, in 1860, began the settlement of Huntsville. The town sight
was laid out in the spring of 1861 and was organized into a branch
of the Church with Captain Hunt as president and Thomas Bingham and
Clinton Bronson as his counselors.
Settling Accounts in Ogden
Although his resources had been diminished as a result of his
last mission, Francis was able to purchase two homes for his
families. They were just a short distance apart. He took with him
from Ogden a "yoke of cattle, one old wagon, one pony and one
little bob tailed cow. " 122 In settling his affairs with Bishop
West, Bishop West paid Francis for the notes that he held for
Bishop West for his interest in the tannery and the property held
in Ogden. With this money, Francis was able to buy the houses
along with twenty acres of land. The houses were two log cabins
with dirt roofs -- one for each of his two families.
Getting Established Again
When Francis arrived in Huntsville there were about twenty-
five families in the town. There was a small log cabin for a
school house. Francis laments the fact that the boys of the town
were crude and untutored and needed some cultivating.
This move was a trial to Mary Jane. She had been raised in a
more cultured society. Although she was not unacquainted with
hardships, the hardships of this move were difficult for her. Along
with the hardships associated with this move, tragedy came into
Francis and Mary Jane's lives. In February 1866 while still in the
initial stages of pioneering Huntsville, Francis's and Mary Jane's
little three-year old daughter, Lizzie Fontella, died. Neverthe-
less, Mary Jane and the rest of the family bore the hardships and
began their labors with the goal of establishing a comfortable and
In spite of the adversity, Francis was thankful that he was
placed up in an out-of-the-way place that would keep his family
away from the temptations that were in Ogden City. It was a good
place for him to train up his family.
Soon Francis was appointed postmaster. Mary Jane did most of
the business associated with this endeavor. He was proud of the
work that his boys did. Francis, assisted by his boys, was able to
have a crop of grain and potatoes and sufficient hay for their
stock. He is very complimentary to them as well as both of his
wives. Their common goals overcame any inter-family problems that
were sure to develop. With Francis's leadership and the common
gospel goals, the two families began to prosper.
Pioneering in Huntsville
However, it must be recognized that even blessed with a modest
amount of prosperity, Francis and his families were still living in
pioneer times. These times included sacrifice, frugality, and
cooperation. The settlers still had to devise domiciles from the
indigenous surroundings. Most of the furniture and other household
accoutrements associated with business, housekeeping, and industry
It took work to survive and make the environment hospitable.
Preparing meals was a major task. This preparation would never
end. The baking of bread was a twenty- four hour task. The yeast
for baking bread would have to be kept fresh. After the bread was
mixed, it was allowed to raise until the next day. It would then
be kneaded, put into pans, and baked. Obviously, there were the
methods of preserving food were primitive. Meat was smoked and
dried. Cream was skimmed off from the milk in order to make
butter. Then there was the job of churning the butter. Meat was
also preserved by cutting it into strips, placing it into barrels
in layers separated with liberal layers of salt. If hung in the
barn in the winter, it would be allowed to freeze and would be kept
frozen until it was used. The tallow from the meat was saved for
the making of candles, greasing cowhide boots and harnesses, and
the making of soap.
The women were constantly busy darning and mending. Wool was
prepared by washing, carding, and spinning into yarn. Shoes were
home-made -- rough and uncomfortable. The furniture was also
crafted locally and hewn from the indigenous softwood forests.
Grain, during those first days in Huntsville, was cut with a scythe
and threshed with a flail. The ox team did much of the work.
Most of the doctoring during those early days in Huntsville
was done by "Granny Smith." She was midwife and doctor.
As the community developed, and the crude cabins were either
improved or replaced with homes made of lumber or hewn rock. The
pioneers progressively improved their cabins and homes, and some of
these homes had pine floors that were covered with straw; and
tightly stretched over the straw were rag carpets.
The log cabin dwellings that Francis's families were required
to live in at least until the early 1870 's were described by his
daughter Mary Alice Hammond Sorensen:
We lived in a little log house about 1/2 block from
the first wife's home. I was not quite 4 years old when
my mother died, but I can remember the house faced the
east with a door and window on the front. The window was
on the right side of the door. In between the door and
window in the inside were shelves covered with a curtain.
I remember these shelves and what was kept on them. . .
In this little log house there was another pane
window on the west with a table by it. On the south side
of the room were two beds, one for my mother and one for
my brother John and me. On the north side was a Charter
Oak Store and in the northwest corner an old fashioned
cupboard. The floor was of bare boards scrubbed white
and clean. The walls were whitewashed. The beds were
old 4 posters with strips of rawhide crisscrossed for
springs. These things with a few chairs composed the
furniture of the little home. The roof of the house was
covered with dirt and weeds grew on it in the summer. I
can remember mother on Christmas standing by the table
rolling out dough and cutting out dolls for presents for
us. We took currants to use for eyes of these dolls.
There was an old granary to the north of the house which
was used as a kitchen in the summer. The wood pile was
on the south side of the house. 123
Francis as Church, Business, and Civic Leader
The log cabins were later replaced by more hospital dwellings,
along with other property improvements. These improvements
accomplished by Francis and his family are revealed in the
reminiscences of Donald D. McKay regarding the time that Francis
moved from Huntsville to San Juan:
. . . The Bishop had been in our town for quite a
few years and by hard work and good management had made
himself quite well-to-do. His big, white frame house was
on the corner of the lot just east of the Renstrom home.
The half of the block north of the house was covered with
barns, corrals and sheds. 124
His "big, white frame house" later burned down; but included
in his assets, was the herd ground in Pissant Valley.
Few, now-a-days, are aware of the importance of the
old Hammond herd ground in Pissant Valley to the whole
county. When you remember that fences were not plentiful
in those days, you would also remember that young stock
and horses -- and sometimes cows, had to be brought off
the place till the crops were harvested. They were all
taken up to the old ranch.''
In order to support his fine house, Francis was able to
increase his ranching and business assets. Francis described his
I have an interest in the Land and Cattle Assoc, of
Weber. They have a yearly crop of about 400 tons of fine
hay and expect to harvest 4000 bu. of oats. I have some
$12,000.00 paid up stock in the company and besides carry
$40,000.00 of unpaid stock. 126
Apostle John Taylor visited Huntsville in the spring of 1866
and the cornerstone was laid for a new rock meeting house. Rock
was cut from the sandstone quarry east of town. When the wrecking
crews demolished it in 192 6, they found in a bottle that had been
placed in the cornerstone with the following inscriptions inside:
"Huntsville, Weber County, Utah Territory, United States of
America, July 4, 1866. The following named persons, members of the
Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, agree to assist in the
building a house in Huntsville wherein to worship god and educate
their children." 127 The building was completed in record time so
that by fall it could be in use. The members donated liberally and
raised $10,000.00 in order to pay for the cost of construction.
This building was also used for the school and other community
activities. Francis was pleased with the response of the saints in
the construction of this building. In September of 1867 Brigham
Young visited the community and spoke to them in the meeting house.
It was truly the center of community activities and those activi-
ties were a powerful influence in the lives of old and young alike.
Edward H. Anderson wrote an essay entitled "The Old rock School
House." His description of the building and the activities
associated with it expressed his nostalgic feelings that probably
expressed the emotions of everyone in the town, including Francis.
It was in this building that the personality of the town was
proclaimed. There were happy times; there were sad times.
Anderson expresses these feelings very well, and at the same time
lets the reader get a better insight into the personality of
The old original log house on the public square was
covered by a dirt roof; the size of the building was
sixteen by twenty feet, as I learned later, and an
addition was made to it in 1865. The Board of School
Trustees, or Directors, were Robert Aldous, Thomas
Bingham and Clinton Bronson. ... I attended my first
religious meeting in the old log house. I was admonished
that all boys who were not perfectly quiet and careful in
their demeanor would be called up by the President to the
stand for punishment, and I therefore had a great fear of
President Hammond. This, however, was soon dispelled as
I came to know him better; I found him to be a real boys
man. Having been an old sailor, he was brusque sometimes
in his expression, but fair in his judgment and a
favorite with the young people, because he seemed to
understand them. . . .
The old rock school house was first occupied in
1868. It was not only our place of religious worship,
but our educational and recreation center. Here we
worshiped on Sunday, went to Sunday and day school, and
met together on all public occasions. I remember one
summer day all the children met to greet President
Brigham Young. We gathered at the old rock meeting house
and were from there lined up on both sides of the main
road to greet the President as he and his company passed
up the street in carriages. On holidays we met here for
recreation, consisting mostly of dancing, as the town was
known for its dances, with David Garner, in my early
days, as the violinist.
The old rock school house consisted of only one
room, and the school was mixed -- very mixed. The
classes consisted of students from the Primary to the
highest grade. Our benches were frequently slabs turned
flat side up, with two pegs in each end, as I remember
it. Finally we received orders to have desks made.
These were to be furnished by the parents, each family
who had children were to furnish a desk. Most of them
made their own desk and the variety of makes can well be
. . .Here it was that I was ordained an Elder, and
here I was selected as President of the teachers quorum,
went to my first choir practice, attended entertainments,
gatherings, civil, social, religious and political, that
were uppermost in the minds of the people, under the long
and ever-to-be remembered leadership of Bishop Francis A.
Hammond and his associates.
One other use, I remember, to which I put the old
rock school house was as a time-piece. In those early
days we worked in the fields then called the north
fields, we had no watches, except the shadow of the sun.
I remember on hot days working in the fields how anxious-
ly I watched the shadow on the east end of the old rock
school house creep down its wall. It was the sign of
noon, and eats; and on Saturdays when we often had a
half -holiday for playing ball on the square, it was the
sign of liberty....
Now (192 6) I am told that the old rock school house
has been torn down. The old house, like the old people
who wrought therein are gone, but the memories remain
fresh and clear, especially memories of the old leaders
and teachers; President Francis A. Hammond, David, Angus
and Isaac McKay, William and George Halls, C. F. Schade,
Soren Peterson, H. C. Warleigh, Charles Wright, Alanson
D. Allen, James Hawkins, Wilmer Bronson, Eli Tracy, and
many others who could be named. Among the young people
who were trained in early days, in my memory, stand out:
Albern and Daniel Allen, Nil Lofgree, Thomas, David, and
Charles Hammond, John Hyslop, Al Sprague, Evan Evans,
John Heder, Charles Wood, Joseph and Frederick Wheeler,
George Langlois, Lars Larsen, John Jacobson, Christian,
James and Scorup Wangsgard, John and Mons Peterson, Henry
Shelton, Joseph Perry, Hans Schow, Nils Mortenson, Soren
Peterson and scores of others who could be named who do
not come immediately to my mind. Then, of course, there
are memories of the girls: Mozelle Hammond, Calista
Bronson, Betty and Bergita Jensen, Lucinda Perry and her
younger sister, the Allen girls, Ann Garner, Celia
Lof green, Mary Wood and her sisters, Mary, Kate, Lucy,
Lucina, Marinda and Cynthia Bingham and many others,
whose voices, in mischief or in play, in study and music,
and in worship sounded in the old rock school house more
than fifty years ago. They are scattered in all parts of
the glorious west, or like the old rock school house,
they are gone beyond, but the memory lingers on forever.
Let us hope that their children and their children's
children may rise up and call them blessed. They may
play and study and worship in grander buildings, with
costlier furnishings, where more refined conduct and
polished behavior are the rule, but never a one where
community welfare and happiness are more abundantly
manifest than they were in the old rock school house at
It was probably in this building that Francis confirmed David
0. McKay, a future prophet, a member of the Church. And it was in
this environment that is described by Anderson, that David 0. McKay
was nourished and prepared for his great mission. President McKay
was a generation behind Anderson, but he grew up under the same
influence that Anderson experienced. The author's grandmother,
Mary Alice Hammond Sorensen, was of President McKay's generation.
At reunions that the author remembers as a child, how his grand-
mother and President McKay talked together as old school friends.
The Transcontinental Railroad
During the construction of the transcontinental railroad,
Francis took a contract to build a portion of it. This contract
provided work for many of the local men.
Members of the Church looked forward to the completion of the
railroad. In fact, the pioneers of 1847 had railroad on their
minds as the made their way from the Missouri River to Utah. 129
The saints had sought refuge in the mountains and isolation. This
was during those early settlement days. The Church was weak, but
by the time the railroad was about to come through Utah, the
settlements were getting established. Brigham Young welcomed the
improved communication with the rest of the nation that would
result from the completion of the railroad. He felt that this
increased contact would help to stamp out the misunderstandings and
prejudices which were prevalent with the national community.
Brigham Young preferred the railroad to traverse Utah via the Salt
Lake Valley. But that would not be the route selected. However,
it was recognized by the citizens of the territory that the
railroad would come down Echo Canyon.
Brigham Young was one of the major contractors for the Union
Pacific. In all, close to 10,000 workers were used. This turned
out to be an economic shot in the arm for the pioneering settlers.
President Young's contract consisted of the construction of the
stone bridge abutments and tunnels in Weber Canyon.
Although he did some contracting on the Union Pacific section,
Francis's main contract was with the Central Pacific. He subcon-
tracted from President Farr and Bishop West. Benson, Farr, and
West built the railroad from Humbolt Wells, to Ogden, a distance of
about two hundred miles. It was somewhere in that distance that
Francis and many of the men from Huntsville did their work. 130 He
says that the saints built the railroad with the same determination
that they used to settled the frontier. Francis and Thomas Bingham
each having a contract, employed about thirty- five men with teams,
and they started the work commencing at Promontory. Payment for
their labors brought hard cash into the community. Up until the
coming of the railroad, most of the commercial enterprises in
Huntsville and throughout the other settlements was through
bartering and trading.
No doubt that during the period of the railroad construction
the farms and building programs of the community were neglected.
Although he was working on the Central Pacific line coming in
the opposite direction, Francis was feeling the excitement and
anticipation of the events along with all of the other settlers of
Utah. It was a great day. On the 8th of March 1869, the tracks
came through Ogden. Whitney describes the occasion:
It was about half past eleven o'clock on the morning
of Monday, March 8th, 1869, that the track-layers on the
Union Pacific Railroad came within sight of the "Junction
City," whose excited inhabitants, from the top of every
high bluff and commanding elevation in the vicinity
"feasted their eyes and ears with the sight and sound of
the long expected and anxiously looked for fiery steed. "
On they came rapidly, the track-layers in front putting
down the rails, and the locomotives, as fast as the iron
path was prepared for them, steaming up behind. 'At half
past 2 p.m. they reached Ogden, where amid the raising of
flags, the music of the brass bands, the shouts of the
people and the thunder of artillery the advent of the
railway was celebrated with the wildest enthusiasm. At
4 o'clock a stand was erected alongside the track, and a
procession consisting of the Mayor, members of the
municipal council and the various schools of the city
headed by their respective teachers formed under the
direction of a committee of arrangements. . . 131
Francis undoubtedly was present at the great union of the two
tracks at Promontory, Utah on 10 May 1869 when the golden spike was
driven. It was a great day for the nation and for the saints.
Francis was part of this great episode. The tradition among some
of the members of the family is that Francis's image was is in the
picture of this great event that is in every U. S. history book.
The author's mother informed him that Francis as shown in the
picture was standing on the cattle guard of the engine on the
right. Because the images in the picture are so small, however, it
is difficult to determine which image is Francis's.
While in Huntsville, Mary Jane brought five more children into
the world: Eliza Dilworth on 27 August 1866, Joseph Heber on 21
October 1869, Luella Adelaide on 27 January 1871, Maybell Ophelia
on 23 November 1872, and Amelia May on 22 May 1877.
Francis's second wife, Alice Howard, gave birth to three
children: John on 15 November 1867, Mary Alice (the author's
grandmother) on 14 April 1869, and Hannah on 5 January 1873.
Hannah was named after Alice's older sister.
In 1869, Francis went to the eastern states on a mission which
was encouraged by the leaders of the Church. The call was made for
five hundred missionaries. Francis became one of them. While in
the East he went to see his family in Long Island. In his own
words he described the occasion:
. . . In the fall of 1869, in company with about
five hundred Elders, I went on a mission to the United
States, to visit friends and relatives and to do all we
could to modify the intense feeling of bitterness and
hatred which prevailed at that time in the hearts of the
people and with the government against the Saints. We
accomplished some good and returned to our homes in the
How Francis was received by his family is uncertain.
According to West Hammond, he probably was not received too kindly.
West said that Francis's family considered him the "black sheep" of
the lineage. 133 Nevertheless, according to the above, Francis was
not totally disheartened. He would continue to correspond with
them in an amiable manner. Then, one more time years later, he
would have the opportunity of visiting the remaining members of his
While Francis was away, the activities in Huntsville were
taken care of by his counselors.
The Loss of Alice Howard Hammond
On 28 January 1873, Alice Howard died of child bed fever just
shortly after Hannah was born. Alice was only twenty-eight years
old. Hannah was placed in the care of Sister Wheeler until "she
could again be with the Hammond family." The baby would need a
"wet nurse" until she could be weaned. Sister Wheeler must have
had a baby of her own that she was also nursing. The other
children were cared for by Mary Jane.
Mary Alice, always gave great tribute to Mary Jane for the
kind and loving care that Mary Jane gave to her as a child who was
left without a mother.
Mary Alice described the events of the funeral:
. . . Her [Alice Howard] sister Hannah was with her
during her sickness and death. Aunt Nellie and Uncle
Dick who were in Salt Lake City came to the funeral . I
remember sitting on Aunt Nellie's lap and riding to the
funeral in bobsleds. It was a cold hard winter. The
snow was so deep that a road had to be shoveled from the
meeting house to the graveyard. The fences were covered
with the snow. As mother had been so highly respected
and loved as a member of the choir a special musical
program was put on in her honor. The chorus of one song
was like this:
On that bright, bright golden shore
That beautiful, beautiful shore;
Where the lost and the loved ones are waiting
And where sorrow will come never more.
So my beautiful young mother was laid to rest mourned by
all who knew her because of her sweet noble character and
her patient loving ways.
After the funeral father held a consultation with
Aunts Hannah & Nellie who wanted to take the children and
care for them as they were married and had good homes .
Aunt Hannah had married Stanley Taylor and Nellie William
Halls. But father always kind and loving said they were
of his blood and as long as he had a crust he would share
it with them. He believed he could work and care for his
own. John and I were taken by Aunt Mary Jane, father's
first wife, and brought up with her own children. As she
herself had a young baby a few weeks old it was thought
best that baby sister Hannah be taken care of by a Sister
Joseph Wheeler who lived close by. She took care of
Hannah until she was about five years old. 134
Alice Howard Hammond was a beautiful alto singer. Her
daughter, Mary Alice Hammond described an interesting event. Mary
Moiselle, Francis's oldest daughter by Mary Jane Dilworth, had a
part in a Christmas program. Since Moiselle could not sing very
well, Alice Howard, while camouflaged in the rear of the curtain,
sang while Moiselle went through the motions of singing. Alice
performed her part while her little daughter Mary Alice sat on her
lap. Mary Alice said, "It was something about Father dear Father
come home with me now, the clock in the steeple strikes one." This
sounds like one of the melodramas that may have been performed at
that time. This incident demonstrates that the two families of
Francis probably got along together reasonably well.
Further note on the family togetherness is again mentioned by
My mother lived a short useful life and although she
was a polygamous wife she was happy for she loved her
husband and children and had the respect of all father's
first family and the love of her husband.
Plural families are as happy as other families when
they live in purity and unselfishness as it is designed
they should live. Perhaps at times little difficulties
arose as they do in most families. Both father's two
wives loved each other or learned to do so through the
close association with each other, helping each other all
they could, waiting on and nursing each other during
child birth. Aunt Mary Jane was the Post Mistress for a
time. So mother went into her home and helped with the
work. I was born in Aunt Mary Jane's house. Thus you
see they helped each other.
. . . John and I though young remember Aunt Mary Jane as
a good woman and our mother as a sweet beautiful woman.
We had and have the greatest love and respect for our
father who was truly a remarkable man, a kind and loving
father who with his wives has made the world better for
their having lived in it. 135
In January of 1876 Francis A. Hammond, Jr., Francis's and Mary
Jane's first child, and Angus McKay went on a mission to Arizona.
The snow was deep, and it took a great deal of effort to leave.
But a few months later on the 27th of May, this child of Mary
Jane's youth died. Angus had the unpleasant task of burying him in
a coffin made from a wagon box. This was a tragedy felt by the
Poor Francis and Mary Jane received the tragic news with
despair and sadness. This child who had traveled so far with them.
Now the sad reminiscences of the pleasant times they had with him
during their mission, their travels, and teaching him the gospel.
He learned from Francis and Mary Jane's example the principles of
sacrifice and consecration. Francis may have remembered little
Frankie losing his pen when they were on their mission. Now that
little irritation became a treasured memory. Francis must have
been so proud of "Frankie" as he left for his mission. He was
fully prepared for it. Little did Francis realize as he was
helping the missionaries struggle through the snow on that cold
January Day when they left, that this would be the last time he
would see him in this life.
The Passing of Mary Jane
Sadness again visited Francis just a little over a year later.
Mary Jane died of child bed fever on 6 June 1877 just a short time
after she gave birth to her last child. Mary Jane had been
attended by Granny Smith during her illness.
Mary Jane had served the Lord, her husband, and the Church in
a most commendable manner. She will always be considered one of
the great ladies of the Church. The town of Huntsville has erected
a monument to Mary Jane Dilworth Hammond. It is located in front
of the school with the following inscription:
In Honor of the first school teacher in Utah Mrs. Mary
Jane Dilworth Hammond. Taught first school in Salt Lake
City, October 1847. Came to Huntsville with her husband,
Bishop Francis A. Hammond, 1865, where she resided until
her death, 1877.
Mary Jane had been a beacon of culture to pioneer Huntsville.
She taught school along with her many other civic and Church
callings. Included in her Church callings was a calling to be
president of the first Relief Society in Huntsville from the 8
December 1867 until her death. More of which is mentioned below.
Francis lost both of his wives during a period of only four
years. The children of both wives were now motherless. Mary
Moiselle, who married George Halls as well as the children's older
sister -- the reader will remember that Moiselle was brought into
the world by Mary Jane as Francis and Mary Jane were returning from
their mission in Hawaii -- took care of the children for a short
Martha Jesina Marcussen Holmes
In order to lift the burden from Mary Moiselle, Francis hired
Martha Jensina Marcussen Holmes to keep house for the Hammonds and
take care of the children. Mary Alice referred to her as Mrs.
Martha Holmes. A few years later on 5 April 1881 Francis married
her. She was a young Danish convert who was a widow at the time
that she started caring for the Hammond children.
She got along very well with the children, and they all loved
her. Mary Alice described her in the following manner: "She was
very kind to us and took the best care of us she possibly could."
The author's mother related to him that Martha wanted to have her
sealing to Mr. Holmes cancelled and be sealed to Francis, but
Francis said that he would not steal another man's wife. However,
although this has not been verified, Martha was supposed to have
had the sealing to Francis accomplished after Francis's death. The
author remembers Martha, as he had the privilege of meeting her
when he was a very young child.
Just a few days after Mary Jane's death, Apostle Franklin D.
Richards called and set apart Francis as Bishop of the Huntsville
Ward on 10 June 1877. William Halls and Niels C. Mortensen were
called as counsellors. Francis had served as the presiding elder
or branch president for twelve years. The town had grown during
this time enough that it could support the full organization of the
The Sunday School was already organized when Francis arrived
in Hunt svi lie. It however, grew along with the growth of the town
and the Church. By 1878 there were 180 members of the Sunday
On 8 December 1867 The Relief Society was organized in
Huntsville. It was organized in Francis's home. Besides Francis
and his counselors, President Farr and Bishop West were in
attendance. Mary Jane was selected as the first Relief Society
President in Huntsville with Jane Mulliner and Elizabeth Hawkins as
counselors and Jeannette E. McKay as Secretary, Mary Bingham as
Assistant Secretary, and Farzina Lish as Treasurer. Later meetings
would be held in the rock meetinghouse. Membership in the
organization was acquired by a house to house canvas. The Relief
Society obviously did much "compassionate service" as helping the
needy and afflicted is called today. The Huntsville Relief Society
also aided other Relief Society Organizations throughout the Church
in providing means in order to help the incoming immigrants who
were crossing the plains. In 1875 when Brigham Young asked that
the Relief Society store grain, Mary Jane and her fellow sisters
responded. They gleaned the fields after the Huntsville grain
harvest in order to fill the President's call. 136
The Young Men's Mutual Improvement Association was organized
A New Meetinghouse
Two years after Francis was ordained the bishop, he and his
counselors made plans to build a new meetinghouse. It too would be
constructed by means of donations from the members of the ward.
This building when completed in 1883 was one of the finest
buildings in the stake. When it was dedicated on Sunday, 8 July
1883, the dedication was done by the First Presidency of the
Church. The Deseret News called it "a memorable day in the history
of Huntsville 137 . When President Taylor arrived Saturday evening,
he was greeted by a brass band and a large number of the saints who
were lined up in front of the new meetinghouse. An "arch of
welcome" with the words "Welcome God's Chosen." That same evening,
Francis held a reception for the First Presidency at his home.
From the same article the following details about the building
and the dedication are supplied:
The new building is a beautiful structure. the
dimensions are 70x35 feet on the inside, 19 feet to the
square, with an arched ceiling. It has a tower and
steeple; on the outside it is 24 feet to the square, and
98 feet from the ground to the top of the steeple. It
has a vestry attached to the north end, the dimensions of
which are 18x24 feet. In the south end is a large
gallery with a seating capacity of about 200. The house
proper will seat about 600. The seats, furniture and all
the wood work are homemade, and very neat. The building
is lighted by five Gothic windows on each side and two on
the south end. It is built of adobe and brick, is
plastered and painted on the outside and has 12 columns
capped with white stone supporting it. The grounds are
neatly fenced and surrounded by trees, presenting a
beautiful appearance. The cost of the building, $11,800,
includes everything pertaining to the building, furnish-
ings, organ, chandeliers, stoves, fencing of the grounds
and everything to make the house one of comfort to the
saints. The erection of such a building by the people of
a small settlement like Huntsville is a very creditable
and praiseworthy undertaking. The building was commenced
in the spring of 1879, and now that it is entirely
completed and dedicated, the saints of Huntsville have
just cause to be proud of so beautiful a place of
worship. The meeting house is one of the finest in the
Stake, and will answer the purpose for which it has been
erected for many years to come. At the services on
sunday there were present on the stand: Presidents John
Taylor, George Q. Cannon and Joseph F. Smith, Pres . L.
John Nuttal, Pres. Jacob Gates and Abram H. Cannon, and
Elders John Ivins and Henry Grow of Salt Lake City; also
Apostle F. D. Richards, Pres L. W. Shurtliff, C. F.
Middleton and N. C. Flygare, Elders F. S. Richards, L. F.
Monch and Richard Ballantye of Ogden, besides Bishops and
Elders from nearly all the settlements in the county. 138
Francis continued to use his leadership, organization, and
building skills that he had demonstrated earlier in his life
beginning with his first mission to Hawaii.
Besides his ecclesiastical duties, Francis was deeply engaged
on the economics of the town. As noted above, he took the
leadership in getting contracts for the men of the town to work on
the building of the transcontinental railroad. He was also
intimately involved in the everyday activities of the town's daily
It seems that it was difficult to keep the livestock segre-
gated from the milk cows when it was time for them to be milked.
When the cows were brought home to be milked, the other livestock
would follow, and the round-up became a big job every evening.
Francis solved the problem. He had the town build a fence "between
the ledges in the South fork Canyon near the mouth of Magpie." The
animals were branded and kept on the range until fall. The fence
made it so that the animals would not return home until they were
supposed to, and the milk cows could be separated easily from the
rest of the town's livestock. 139
One of the enterprises in which Francis invested was the
Huntsville Co-op Farm. It had periods of modest prosperity, but
during most of its history it struggled because of jealousy, poor
management, crickets, and early frosts. The co-op included 450
acres. This farm was located where the Monastery is presently
established. The co-op bought from Francis and Angus McKay 600
head of sheep. After bad feelings developed among some of the
members and officers, Francis sold his interest in the stock to the
association. After failing at sheep and stock herding, the co-op
sold the stock back to Francis and Angus McKay. The Halls brothers
bought the farm after the co-op was dissolved in 1878.
George Hall, Francis's son-in-law -- married Mary Moiselle,
and his brother William established a cheese factory. Francis
seemed to be pleased with the venture. He indicated that the cost
for it was $1,200.00, and the first year the factory produced 2,000
pounds of cheese. This cheese sold for fifteen cents a pound.
In 1866, the citizens of Huntsville had the experience of
entertaining about one thousand Indians. They camped in the valley
west of the settlement. The chiefs attended some of the church
meetings, and Francis invited the residents of the town to bring
donations to give to the Indians. The guests danced some of their
native dances, including the telling of some of their war narra-
tives, which where acted out in the dances. The narrative
described the recent killing of one of their enemy. They even
displayed a scalp, which was assumed to be owned by the unfortunate
victim. The town met with the Indians at the bowery and gave them
considerable food: some livestock, flower, and potatoes and other
A co-operative store was organized in Huntsville in 1869. The
initial investment was $700.00 in stock. William Halls was the
business manager. In 1879, however, it was dissolved and sold to
Francis Loses More of His Family
Francis, during the years he was in Huntsville, watched its
steady and painful growth. There had been extreme winters 140 and
early and late frosts that had hurt the crops. Crickets had given
them trouble. 1878 was hard on the saints. They experienced an
epidemic of scarlet fever and diphtheria. About twenty children
died of one of these diseases. 141 Typhoid fever would soon plague
Francis. On 7 January 1879 Francis's 17 year old son, William
Edmund died of typhoid fever. Just a month later, his 19 year old
son, George Albert Hammond died of apoplexy. George Albert experi-
enced good health right up until the time of his death. He died as
he was about to retire to bed after having been to a ball. During
the act of undressing, he fell across his bed. His little brother
was with him at the time, and as George Albert fell lifeless across
his bed, his brother yelled for assistance. Francis and other
members of the family rushed into the room, only to find that it
was too late. Francis certainly had his share of tragedy.
The Weber County Land and Livestock Company
In 1878, Francis contracted to supply the stone for the Weber
River bridge. He was either a close observer or an intimate
participant in the steady growth and development of the area. It
was difficult to raise wheat because of the frosts, but barley and
oats did very well. Potatoes also flourished. Ogden Valley was a
good dairy environment, and the cheese factory was able to produce
as much as 18,000 pounds of cheese per annum. The dairy herds were
of good stock. 142
In 1884 Francis, along with some others organized the Weber
County Land and Livestock Company. The Ogden Daily Hearld gives
Some weeks ago, we incidentally mentioned that a new
enterprise of considerable proportions was under way, it
being the formation of Weber County Land and Livestock
Company. This has been consummated by the incorporation
of such an organization, yesterday, Sept. 11th. The
following are Directors:
Hons. F. A. Hammond, J. W. Guthrie, and L. W.
Shurtliff, and F. B. Hammond and J. M. Langsdorf, Esqs.
F. A. Hammond is President, J. W. Guthrie Vice-president,
and J. M. Langsdord Secretary and Treasurer of this
combination which is a strong and substantial one.
They have secured several hundred -- indeed nearly
one thousand acres of the finest stock-raising land in
the West, situate in the beautiful and fruitful Ogden
Valley, close by Huntsville. It is in all respects
adapted for a stock farm with unusual facilities, water
being abundant and of the best quality. In a much truer
than "Colonel Sellers" sense "there's millions in it",
not only for the incorporators individually, but eventu-
ally for the whole of Ogden Valley and Weber county in
general, as we will show in the near future.
Meanwhile we feel to congratulate the getters-up of
the business on their enterprise and good judgment in
selecting so lovely and productive a corner of this
mundane sphere as Ogden Valley. 143
Francis's Last Years in Huntsville
Between the years 1881 to 1884 his two oldest sons Samuel and
Fletcher and his daughter Eliza married. Samuel married Eleanora
Sorensen, Fletcher married Olivia Bronson, and Eliza married Mons
These were good times for Francis. Not only was there
celebration for the marriage of three of his children, but the town
recognized him at the celebration of his 61st birthday in 1883.
This must have been a surprise party arranged by Martha, his wife.
Francis loved a good party. His large banquet table was not only
to feed a large family, but it was an indication of his love to
November 1st was the 61st birthday of Bishop f. A.
Hammond of Huntsville. Many of his friends congregated
at his residence at 5 p.m. and partook of a sumptuous
repast prepared by his good lady. The evening was spent
in a most pleasant manner characteristic of Bishop F. A.
Hammond's socials. The Brass Band and a few young ladies
of Huntsville entertained the Bishop and guests with
music and son much to his surprise. Many speeches were
made by the beneficiary's guests, all congratulations of
his successful efforts to prove a friend, indeed, to the
people amongst whom he has labored for many years, and
full of well wishes for his continued happiness. 144
In August of 1884 Francis "turned over my cattle and summer
ranch into the Weber Co. Land and Live Stock and I bought out the
Halls Bros, claim to the old Coop, farm for $17,000.00. Incorpo-
rated for $150,000.00. Sent east for a car load of Herford white
face cattle. n145
Francis, through determination and hard work, during periods
of economic setbacks as well as periods of prosperity, was able to
acquire considerable economic benefits and influence.
However, this was his standing just prior to each of his mis-
sions, only on a lesser scale than he was experiencing in the early
1880 's. Now, although he would not lose everything, he would
experience another period of economic sacrifice in order to heed
the Lord's invitation again. He was soon to consecrate his talents
and resources to another calling.
PRESIDENT OF THE SAN JUAN STAKE
In October of 1884, Francis was called to the San Juan
Mission. Along with this calling, he was also set apart as
president of the San Juan Stake. However, before he made the move
from Huntsville to San Juan, he and his son Samuel took a recon-
naissance trip to the area.
Francis and Samuel boarded the Denver and Rio Grand Railroad
and embarked to Durango, Colorado in December of 1884. Francis
described Durango as a "town of about 4 yrs. old, has a population
of about 2,000. The business principally mining and stock raising.
There are two smelters in operation, a water works but no water
rights for the city. There are fine stores and a fine butcher shop
with good display of meats and poultry, fresh oysters selling by
the quart. The town is situated on the Anemas River in the midst
of a small narrow valley, sides lined with pines, furs and eders."
They were expecting to meet a Brother Roberts, who would take
them to Mancos and Bluff and then escort them around the Stake.
However, the weather was bad; it snowed for several days, and the
snow drifted to the extent that transportation was stalled. So
when the first train was able to operate, Francis and Samuel
returned to Hunstville.
Upon their return, Francis stopped in at the Ogden Daily
Herald and gave this paper a much more detailed account of his
journey than he gave in his journal. Having lived in Ogden for
some time, and certainly even after his move to Huntsville, Francis
continued to have business dealings in Ogden. During his residence
in Ogden, he held some important civic responsibilities, including
being a local justice of the peace. The Ogden Daily Herald
frequently related to its readers some of Francis's church and
Francis informed the Herald that he left Huntsville on 14
December. On his journey to Durango, he first stopped in Pueblo.
The paper reminded its readers that it was here that the part of
the Mormon Battalion wintered during the winter of 1846-1847.
Francis also had the experience of seeing the stump of a large pine
tree which included some journaled information on men such as Kit
Carson and Judge Lynch. It was at this location that 13 men were
hanged under the direction of Judge Lynch. However, Pueblo, by
this time had developed into a thriving city, which included a
large Bessemer steel works .
After Francis and Samuel left Pueblo, they continued their
journey to Durango on the Denver and Rio Grand Railroad. From
Pueblo they went through the southern part of the San Luis Valley.
Francis was very impressed with the productivity of this region.
It was large, 100 miles long and four miles wide. The soil was
rich and produced abundant crops. At LaHara, Francis and Samuel
left the train and walked a short distance to a little Mormon
community called Richfield. In this settlement the straw was
stacked high. The region had a bountiful wheat crop that year.
While in Richfield, Francis and Samuel enjoyed the hospitality of
Bishop Bertelson. Bishop Bertelson had come from San Juan County
and gave them a good idea of what the land there was like. He
informed the Hammonds that the soil was productive; and there was
plenty of timber for fencing, fuel, and building.
Later in the day, father and son were driven to Manassas.
This was also a Mormon settlement. They met President Silas S.
Smith. President Smith was an old friend and missionary associate
of Francis's when he was on his mission in the Sandwich Islands.
This obviously was a pleasant experience for Francis. The Hammonds
stayed all night in Manassas. Francis also had the privilege of
visiting the local school, taught by Brother Williamson. According
to Francis, it was a fine school. Brother Williamson took them
back to LaHara in order for them to continue their journey.
As they resumed their journey, Francis was impressed with the
railroad building associated with the line. As an old railroad
builder, he was fascinated with fine workmanship in the construc-
tion of the railroad, including the tunnels and skillful engineer-
ing associated with the line.
They arrived in Durango on the 20th and was greeted with the
violent snow storm mentioned above. In as much as they were snow
bound, they enjoyed the gracious hospitality of the Sherman House
along with some food delicacies that was associated with much
larger towns .
Francis was also able to make contact with a Mr. Carlile, an
Englishman who was managing a large ranch that was financed by
investors from England. The company had stock in San Juan County,
Utah as well as in New Mexico and Kansas. 146
Arrangements for the Move
After he arrived back in Huntsville, Francis continued making
his plans for the move to San Juan. He expected that about forty
or fifty other families would also make the move with him. His
sons and son-in-law, George Hall, were also willing to relocate
Francis was short of cash because of his business transactions
in August of 1884 (those transactions involving the Weber County
Land and Live Stock Company and the Co-op store) . He noted the
difficulty that he would have to sell his property, but he also
expressed his faith that the Lord would provide a way for him to
fill his mission.
On 24 March 1885 Frances was set apart for his mission by
Presidents John Taylor and George Q. Cannon and Elder Franklin D.
The previous evening, the Huntsville Ward gave Francis a
reception in the old school house. This reception included a
picnic and associated festivities. The next morning, as the
advance party was about to leave, the town assembled in front of
his home again in order to wish him well on his journey.
Francis made his move in two trips. The first trip in
included seven wagons. It was his plans to return to Huntsville in
July to bring his wife and the rest of his family and possessions
to San Juan. During his absence, he left his business dealings in
the care of F. B. Hammond and Soren Petersen.
The Advance Party
The route that this advance party took went through Salt Lake,
then to Provo, Springville, Nephi, Gunnison, and Salina. Francis
went ahead of the group and visited friends along the way.
While in provo Francis had dinner with President A. 0. Smoot.
Judge Densenbury took him on a tour of the "Lunatic Asylum. " He
also called at the Brigham Young Academy to see his friend Karl G.
He joined the advance party at Springville, and they continued
their journey on to San Juan. The various settlements along the
way were very hospitable to them. At Salina, they bought addition-
al supplies. From Salina, they went up the "Salina Canyon into
Grass Valley, then to Thurber, Noah or Rabbit Valley, Canevile. " 147 -
They had to cross the Dirty Devil River nine times. They had
considerable difficulty in making these crossings because the river
was so full of quicksand. Next they went to Elephant Ridge, Blue
Wash, and finally some forty miles farther, they came to the
They unloaded their supplies prior to making the crossing.
The wagons were taken across empty. They ferried some of the
animals, but some of them swam. This must have been a scene from
a modern western movie. There was only one animal lost -- a mule
owned by a non-member of the Church who was traveling with Francis
and his party. That evening one of Francis's mares foaled a colt.
This whole river crossing operation took them two days.
Levi Hammond left them there at the crossing and returned
home. Francis bought a horse from him because one of Francis's
horses got sick from eating too much green feed.
After they crossed the river, they followed a steep wash for
about thirteen miles. It was a rough road. From time to time they
camped at available water supplies and allowed the men to hunt and
the women to do washing and other household and camping chores .
They held church on Sundays, and if the weather were inclem-
ent, they held the meeting in one of the wagons. On one such
occasion when they were holding a meeting in Joseph Johnson's
wagon. What started out to be a small shower, turned into a
torrent . The flood that came down the wash carried away Samuel ' s
wash tubs. These tubs were later found a considerable distance
The next twenty- five miles were also rough; but the following
twenty miles were over a hard service, although the ridges along
the road were pretty dangerous. There was also some danger of
going into the Grand Gulch that leads into Bluff. It was about
this time that Francis came in contact with Brothers C. B. Walton,
Jens Nielson, and Robert Allen. They came from Bluff to meet them
and help them into town. At this point they were about twenty- five
miles from Bluff. Francis said that the water was scarce, but
there was good feed for the animals .
They reached bluff in the early evening. They were enter-
tained by Bishop Jens Nielson. He provided for the weary travelers
a place to camp. Bishop Nielson, the Jones, and the Waltons also
provided lodgings in their respective houses. Francis expressed
his gratitude to the Lord for their safe arrival.
Like Huntsville, the community had shortly been settled —
about five years. At one time there were sixty-five families, but
when Francis arrived, the numbers had decreased to twenty. Those,
including their president, who had left became discouraged because
of the difficulty in controlling the water. During floods, the
head of the canal would be washed away, and the ditches would be
filled with silt. It was almost too expensive in time and labor to
keep repairing the damage.
One of the first business transactions that Francis accom-
plished was to buy a log house from Amas Barton. Francis said that
it was a comfortable three room log house. There was a rock
addition and a lean-to for a kitchen. During his pioneering days
in the early establishment of the Salt Lake Valley and at Hunts-
ville, he experienced the difficulty of keeping dirt roofs from
leaking. He was impressed with this little cabin because the rock
part of the house had a shingled roof. The house was located on a
little rise called "Vinegar Hill."
Soon after arriving at Bluff, Francis held a ward conference,
and he was sustained as president of the stake with William Halls
and William Adams as counselors and Charles Walton as clerk.
Francis then made a visit around the stake. It took four weeks.
The stake was made up of the Burnham Ward in Fruitland, New Mexico,
about 100 miles from Bluff; the Mancos Ward in Coloarado, 90 miles
away; the Bueno Ward, six miles south of Moab; and the Moab Ward.
The Monticello Ward was later organized in 1890 under Francis's
The various meeting schedules are interesting. They were
quite different from what contemporary Latter-day Saints experi-
ence. All of the wards had the same schedule: Sunday School at
10:00 a.m., Sacrament Meeting at 2:00 p. m. On Mondays the wards
held their Priesthood Meeting, Tuesday evening was Young Men and
Young Ladies Meeting. Wednesday the wards scheduled a Missionary
Class. Thursday was Fast Day. Fast Meeting was held at 10:00 a.m.
Tuesday afternoon the wards calendared Relief Society Meetings,
Primary, and Religion Classes. This was a schedule that kept
people busy. It was obviously appropriate. The wards were
isolated, and the land sparsely settled. This was the way that the
spiritual, social, and economic needs of the settlers were taken
Francis encouraged the saints to be self-supporting and to
plant fruit trees. He counseled them to form a co-op store, a
dairy, and a tannery. These industries would help them to be self
sustaining as a community. They must have spent considerable time
working on plans to establish an irrigation system that would
control the flooding.
On 25 May Francis, along with William Halls, Joseph L.
Johnson, Lemual Redd, Alvin Decker, Tjayles Haskell, and Peter
Allen explored the Elk and Blue Mountains, about forty miles north
of Bluff. They were interested in the suitability of the area for
stock grazing. The timber and water-power resources were also
The Southern Ute and Navaho Indians were indigenous to the
area, and for that reason stock had not been placed on the
mountains. Francis had some respect for the Navaho Indians, but he
said that the Utes "hunt and beg and lead a miserable life." The
Navaho raised goats, horses, and farmed. They also participated in
legitimate trade with the whites, particularly exchanging goatskins
Francis and his companions held a meeting up on the highest
mountain in the area; and at this meeting, Francis also dedicated
the land. Each member of the group bore his testimony, and they
sang hymns and prayed. It was determined that the area was very
suitable for stock and dry farming.
On a second trip to the mountains, they surveyed the area to
determine the feasibility of bringing water to the White Mesa.
Also on this trip, they met a Mr. Carlisle. His company used the
area to graze 20,00 head of cattle, along with an addition 3,000
head in New Mexico. Francis, as noted above, had previously met
Mr. Carlile the year before on his trip to Durango. Francis was
pleased with this meeting. Mr. Carlile indicated that he would be
cooperating with the settlers. Francis was elated with the water
resources. There would be ample culinary water for their homes,
and he felt that the climate was delightful. However, he underes-
timated the task of building a canal. He felt that only 3 miles of
the planned canal would need blasting and heavy work. He also
estimated that most of the work would be done with the plough and
At a later date when a group returned to begin the building of
the canal, they found that the streams were dry and that the job
was much bigger than expected. There would not be enough men in
Bluff to complete the task. Canal building among the saints were
usually a community development. Everyone had to participate.
A few years later, the community built a steam pump on the
bank of the river in order to get enough water for their gardens
and orchards, but the silt from the river water was too thick. It
clogged the pump and the canal, and the crops and orchards
struggled to survive. It took lots of man-power to keep the canal
clean of the sediment.
Soon after their arrival, the settlers were busy plowing and
planting their gardens. Francis tried planting some cane on part
of his ground. The women worked hard in order to get their cabins
and homesteads comfortable, but Francis and his group had to live
in their wagons from 24 March to 14 May.
On the 20th of June, Francis called a conference and invited
the Indians. The Indians were told that the settlers wanted peace
with them; and at the end of the conference, the settlers and the
Indians had a feast. It was agreed that the settlers could use Elk
Mountain to run their cattle. In return the Indians were given
supplies of "bread, coffee, beef, molasses, etc.." The settlers
also gave the Indians some ponies. Overall Francis was pleased
with the meeting.
Return to Huntsville and the Final Move
Francis, his son Joseph -- just fifteen years old -- his
daughter Mary, and Mary Haskel and her father left Bluff the 12th
of July 1885 in order to return to Huntsvile and bring the rest of
their property. Brother Haskel was good with the Indians, and he
was their guide as far as Grand Valley. It appears that Haskel 's
daughter Mary was going to make the trip with Francis. The reason
for her journey was either to be company for Mary Hammond on the
return trip or as a chance for her to see Salt Lake or both. They
crossed the Grand River on Norman Taylor's ferry. It cost $4.00
for five horses and one wagon. When they got to Thompson Springs,
Francis took the railroad on to Salt Lake, and Joseph and the girls
went on alone. Francis was proud of the responsibility that he was
able to place upon Joseph.
While trying to help Ammon Allred move Francis's steam engine
for shipment from Ogden to San Juan, Francis's son John broke his
left leg. In attempting to cross the North Fork Bridge, the horse
kicked John and broke his leg. This is probably the steam engine
that was used to try and pump water from the river there at Bluff
for the purpose of watering their crops.
Francis shipped some of his farm equipment by way of the
railroad to Durango. He bought two wagons, two mowers, three
harrows, and a cream separator. He shipped his equipment to a
Brother A. S. Farnsworth at Durango at a cost of $85.00. This cost
is mentioned so that modern readers can get an idea of the prices
in those days. These costs seem modest for the 1990 's, but they
were big expenses for those times.
On Friday, 16 October 1885 Francis sold his home in Huntsville
to Joseph M. Ferrin for $600.00. He also sold Fletcher's home to
Soren Peterson. He still had two brick stores that he owned in
Ogden. Additionally, Francis said that he "surrendered all my
stock in the company 400 shares." This must have been his stock in
The Land and Cattle Association of Weber.
As the San Juan settlers left Huntsville for the last time,
they took with them 500 head of stock and 8 wagons. Members of his
family traveling with him were Martha, his wife; his sons, Fletcher
and wife and 4 children, John, and Joseph; his daughters, Mary,
Luella, Maybell, Hannah and Amelia May; his son-in-law George Halls
and Moselle. Mary, who was sixteen years old at the time, drove
one of the wagons all the way to Bluff. Thomas Halls was also
among the group along with Peter, a boy hired to drive one of the
teams. Joseph accompanied the herd. Hyrum Allen, Thomas Gibbson,
Christian Thurston, and Joseph Horrock were also among the pioneers
to San Juan. When they arrived in Ogden, they camped at L. J.
Herricks' field, and it was there that they appointed Fletcher to
take charge of the herd and George Halls as wagon master. Instead
of taking the Grass Valley route, which was the route they had
taken the first time, they decided to take the Castle Valley route.
The Castle Valley route took them to Green River. This was a
long and hard part of the journey. Sometimes the grades were so
steep that they had to use extra teams for the wagons. At Green
river, they ferried the wagons for $2.00 per wagon. At the Grand
River, Hyrum Taylor met them and guided them across the river. At
Kane Springs, they again experienced bad roads, and they needed to
double-team their wagons at Peters Hill. At a place called
Recapture, they met Samuel Smith who had come to assist them. They
finally reached Bluff on December 4. The trip for the wagons had
taken about forty-nine days. Peter, the boy hired to drive the
cattle, arrived at Bluff without the cattle on 18 December. He had
to leave the stock at Recapture. The snow was deep and the cattle
were tired. It took them two months to drive the cattle that far.
This cattle drive cost the Halls $850.00, but this sum also
included the addition of 4 mules, two saddles, two horses and a
Implementing the Plans
The pioneers purchased the Webber Ranch in Mancos from
Somsonberg and Honaker. It was divided up with one-fourth section
for Samuel, eighty acres for Frances, and the rest of the Section
for the Halls. The stock was herded up to Elk Mountain, mentioned
above. The cowboys were organized with two men for every fifty
head of cattle. They would herd for ten days at a time at a cost
of $2.00 per day for each man and his horse. The Indians also were
running 5,000 sheep on their ground on their side of the river.
As Francis had suggested on his first journey, the settlers
soon organized "The San Juan Mercantile Stock Raising and Manu-
facturing Company, " which also included a co-op store. The
constitution was drawn up for the company which included twenty-
four sections. There was a capital stock of $100,000.00, incor-
porated for twenty years. Officers of the company were: Jans
Nielson, president; William Adams, vice-president; Joseph B.
Decker, Treasurer. Francis, F. Jones, and Hansen Bayles were
directors. Just about everyone in the community had an interest in
In 1891 the company purchased the Elk Mountain Brand Cattle;
and Francis, L. H. Redd, and Kruman Jones were appointed managers.
It was not long before the company had 2,000 head of cattle and
6,000 head of sheep.
By 1886 the saints were doing reasonably well. They raised
surplus of corn and sorghum. They sold the sorghum in Mancos, and
with the proceeds from these transactions they were able to
purchase their flour. They sold their corn to the cowboys. They
bought a grist and a saw mill. Francis had his thresher sent from
Huntsville to Mancos for the people to use. Francis tanned his own
hides by soaking them in mountain bush or Brigham tea, then soap
suds and ashes. Francis took care of the shoes for his family and
for many others. A creamery was built and produced butter and
cheese. The pioneer women dried lots of fruit. But still it was
a challenge to keep the water flowing to the orchards in order to
have fruit to dry.
The Utah Removal Bill
In 1890 Francis was informed that the Indians in Colorado,
Arizona, and other states were to be placed in the Bluff reserva-
tion. A bill was in Congress, that if passed, would make it
possible for those Indians who were on that reservation to be able
to take over the homes and ranches of the Bluff settlers. Since
the area had not had a formal survey, some members of congress felt
that the Indians had as much right to those lands as the present
settlers. One might wonder if it had anything to do with further
anti-polygamy sentiment -- a way to make life more miserable for
the Mormons .
President George Q. Cannon, the Utah Territorial delegate
(Caine) , L. J. Nuttal, and D. Cannon, the son of George Q. Cannon
were sent by the Church to represent the settlers in connection
with what was called the Utah Removal Bill. During this trip,
Francis also had the chance to visit Long Island and preach the
gospel to some of his friends and his family.
Washington D. C. and a Family Visit
Francis left for Washington via Ogden, Omaha, and Chicago on
12 December 1889. As he traveled in comfort up Weber and Echo
Canyons, he must have been aware of the changes that had taken
place in the canyon traffic since he had "stood guard" in Echo
Canyon during the Utah War. Many places he recognized as the train
chugged steadily up through the canyon. He recognized old camping
places and reminisced over incidents associated with the terrain.
When the train hit the Great Plains, it was averaging forty to
fifty miles per hour. He traveled by sleeper, and he was amazed at
having traveled five hundred miles during his slumber. In his
journal, Francis described the geography of the country so familiar
to present day transcontinental travelers. He enjoyed the beauty
of the landscape and marveled at the tall buildings in Chicago.
On 16 December 1889 at 6:30 pm Francis arrived in Washington.
He was met by John T. Caine, Utah's delegate to Congress. Caine
was elected to this office in 1882 by the people of Utah after
George Q. Cannon who had previously been elected to that office was
denied it by the 47th Congress. The thing that brought this action
about was the Edmunds Bill which was passed by the Congress about
the same time that the 47th Congress was debating the seating of
Cannon. This bill made polygamy a crime. Since Cannon was a
polygamist, Congress chose to not seat him in his elected office.
Delegate Cain held this office up until 1893. 148
Francis was impressed with Washington. He said it was "one of
the finest capitols in the world." Francis was accompanied in his
travels by a "fine lad" by the name of William D. Riter.
While in the East, Francis attended a number of other
churches, including the Catholic Church, the Salvation Army, and
various Protestant Churches .
On the 23 of December Francis went to Long Island. Appar-
ently, Congress was closed for the holidays. This interlude gave
Francis a chance to visit his remaining family and friends. He was
met at Patchogue by his nephew Robert Robert
Hammond. Robert drove Francis to see his younger brother, Captain
S. S. Hammond. It was a pleasant reunion, and the two of them
along with his brother's wife visited well into the night. He met
an old school mate of his, visited childhood haunts, and continued
to meet family and friends. He was fortunate enough to visit with
his sister Caroline at Babylon, a town a few miles west of
On or before his return to Washington, Francis wrote to L. H.
Redd in San Juan for a map of the Indian Reservation. Francis
would need this in his lobbying. He was pleased with the map when
In Washington, he met with various congressmen and senators,
particularly those who had anything to do with the committees on
Indaian affairs. He testified before the Committee on Indian
Affairs; and at various social functions he continued to lobby
members of the committees and answer their questions about
Mormonism and polygamy.
George Q. Cannon arrived to help with the delegation on 19
January. Francis spent a pleasant day with him and Brother Nuttal
updating them with what had taken place. President Cannon was an
old hand in Washington, and he would still have some contacts that
he had made in former years. Although President Cannon was denied
his delegate seat in Congress, he was still very respected.
While this legislation was pending, the Indians were pretty
unruly. However, the legislation was dropped, and the Indians who
may have been relocated were placed back on their own reservations
The Dedication of the Salt Lake Temple
The next red letter event in Francis's life was his attendance
at the dedication of the Salt Lake Temple. Although he did not
reside in Salt Lake for much of his life, he watched the construc-
tion progress on this marvel of buildings. He was aware of the
struggles to build it, the problems associated with covering over
its excavation during the Utah War, and how it was the main
building attraction in the city from the time the first shovel full
of dirt was removed to begin its construction. This sacred project
had been so much a part of every settler's life for forty years.
Members of the Church had listened to sermons about the sacred
enterprise, planned their finances and work schedule in order to
participate in its realization, and had been called on missions to
labor on it. The work of the stone cutters and masons became the
work of three generations of workers. Succeeding generations would
each day pass the work of their progenitors as they went up and
down the scaffolding in their daily work activities and adding
their own generation's gift to the holy edifice. The younger
generation observed in reverence the work of their fathers and
grandfathers. Now Francis would have an opportunity to partici-
pate in the dedication of the dream.
As usual, Francis attended the Annual General Conference of
the Church in 1893. The sessions started on Tuesday 4 April and
adjourned on the 5th of April. Then, on 6 April 1893, Francis
walked on to the Temple grounds that morning through the south
gate. The weather was stormy and threatening. After entering the
grounds, Francis entered the Temple through the south west door.
Then he and other stake presidents and Church leaders took a tour
of the temple. Francis described the beauty of the workmanship.
He was thrilled to enter the baptistery. There he expressed his
admiration for the font that was laid upon twelve oxen. He
understood the significance of the symbolism of the twelve oxen
representing the twelve tribes of Israel. From the baptistery,
Francis and the others were shown the various ordinance rooms. He
was thrilled with each experience. When the group was shown the
Celestial Room, the spiritual fire within him glowed in rapture.
In his own words he was "struck dumb as it were with astonishment
at the heavenly grander of this room of rooms."
Next he went to the large assembly room. He described in his
journal of 6 April the program: the music, dedicatory prayer,
talks, etc. President Woodruff invited the stake presidents to
attend as many of the other sessions as they desired. Francis
accepted this invitation from the Prophet and attended several
other sessions until he returned to San Juan.
One hundred years later two of Francis's grandsons, West
Hammond and David Allred and a great-grandson, the author, partici-
pate in the blessings associated with the sacred edifice as
ordinance workers. The author, on 6 April 1993 noted the large
number of patrons participating in the divine ordinances -- about
four thousand ordinances were completed on the centennial anniver-
sary of the dedication of the Salt Lake Temple. Then on 18 April
1993 when one hundred years before the dedication sessions were
still in progress, David Allred and the author had the privilege of
attending a Centennial Devotional for Salt Lake Temple ordinance
workers in the upper room of the temple, where Francis sat one
hundred years earlier, and they listened to and participated in
some of the same music that Francis had earlier enjoyed. This
devotional was presided over by President Thomas S. Monson of the
First Presidency of the Church. Included at the modern devotional
was "Temple Song." This hymn was sung by the choir at the
dedication in 1893 and was again sung by a choir of ordinance
workers. And as in the services the of the dedicatory sessions of
1893, the Centennial Devotional choir of temple workers and the
congregation sang "The Spirit of God" ("Hosanna Anthem"). The
sermons associated with the latter were devoted to reminiscences
and tribute to the pioneers of Francis's day and of the services
that had taken place one hundred years earlier.
Activities in Southern Utah
Francis did lots of corresponding. He subscribed to many
newspapers and publications. He kept in touch with the activities
on Long Island by subscribing to his home-town newspaper. He also
sent a copy of the Deseret News to his family in Long Island.
The correspondence between Francis and his family reveal his
feelings and disposition during the last years of his life,
particularly his correspondence between himself and Amelia, "my own
sweet baby, " as Francis addressed her in one of his letters to her
when she was going to school at the Brigham Young Academy. He also
addressed her as "My own dear daughter." These salutations show
his willingness to express his love freely to his family, but
particularly to his youngest daughter. Amelia traveled around the
stake a great deal with Francis in his last years. She assisted
him in a most supportive way. When she went away to school,
Francis mentioned in a letter to her dated 17 January 1900, "I
shall be very glad when your school days are over and you at home
again, and at leisure to accompany me in my journeys around the
Stake." Although Francis had lands and cattle, cash was in short
supply. In spite of this, he sent his "own sweet baby" to college.
She became a very well educated and articulate leader. In a letter
that she wrote to Francis when he was in Salt Lake Amelia gives an
excellent description of what was going on in the settlement in
1889. It is noteworthy that she wrote this when she was twelve
Bluff, San Juan co, Utah
August 12, 1889
According to my promise I will now endeavor to write
you a few lines to let you know how we are getting along.
We are well and hope you and Mary are the same. We feel
very lonesome since you left, we stay alone here during
the day. Lizzie Allen stays here with us at nights
because it is so lonesome at nights and there is so many
Indians in town. We put the cow up and have kept her up
ever since. The Indians have been singing and dancing
every night. They did a good deal of shooting and they
are going to sing and dance for 5 nights for rain. Br.
Jones said he never knew them to act so saucy before.
The other night they went into Br. Barton's lot and stole
all his watermelons but 3 which were hid in some squash
vines. They have stole Hans Bayles and Lemuel Reed's
field potatoes. They dug up most of the vines and took
all they could carry and left the rest on the vines.
This morning when Ma woke up just at sun up there were 6
large Utes on horseback standing watching us . Ma was
much frightened to see them. Red Jacket was with them.
They stood talking to each other for a long while and
wouldn't go off. They didn't say what they wanted. All
the Sisters are very much frightened. The water has come
in the ditch but it is a very small stream, just one can
water at a time. We just took the water a little while
ago on the garden. Ma has hired an Indian to weed the
corn and pay him 75 cts a day. He has been here two days
and we talked about keeping him another day. The corn is
wilting for the want of water but the weeding is doing it
some good. Ma has just gone down to see Br. Barton about
putting a floor down tomorrow. Two SM arrived here last
Sunday night at 12 o'clock. Br. Bailey came from the
mountain just 10 minutes before they came. Br. Bailey
rushed all the men out and they went to the mountains
with their blankets to sleep and when they came back in
the morning they found out they did not come for our
brethren but they came for some train robbers . I suppose
you have heard about at Thompson Springs. Brother Redd
and Br. Allen was going to Burnham but the Bishop didn't
think it safe to go. This is all I can think of this
time. Hoping this letter will find you well. Write and
tell us if you have good health. May God bless you and
prosper you on your journey is the best wishes of your
P.S. Br. Decker has not returned yet, but sister Decker
thinks that they will either be here tonight or else
tomorrow. Br. Barton's girls did not go to the Mancos.
The Navajos come in town about sundown and then they go
home about 1 or 2 o'clock. They come in late just so
they can steal the melons at night . Last night Ma woke
up and there was three crowds passed. Give my love to
Mary and Philip. A.M. Hammond.
P.S. I forgot to say that Ma sends her love to you and
This is a very articulate letter for one so young, and it
gives the reader a good description of the activities that were
going on in the settlements in 1889. She mentions the Sheriffs
coming to town. The fact that the men of the town left for the
mountains, suggests that the sheriffs may have been looking for
Francis enjoyed the hospitality of people, and he particularly
enjoyed being host. He was amply assisted in this pleasure by
Martha, his wife. Although it was not formally called "Family Home
Evening, " Francis held his family home evenings just as we do now.
Prayer and scripture reading of the Standard Works were daily
activities in his home.
Always interested in education, Francis took personal interest
in the selection of the community's teachers — at Huntsville as
well as in San Juan, particularly in Bluff. He would often
interview them personally. He held the position of School
Examiner. One young man he interviewed for a teaching position was
Andrew Phillip Sorensen. Phil, as he was called, was recruited
from the Cache Community of Smithfield, and he would eventually
marry Francis's daughter, Mary Alice.
During his tenure as the stake president, Francis made regular
visits to the wards in his stake, held ward conferences. He drove
to these conferences in a fine buggy, pulled by a choice pair of
horses. He took a lot of personal care of his buggy and groomed
his horses meticulously.
He attended the Church's general conferences in Salt Lake,
missing only three times in fifteen years.
Francis loved to teach the theology class. He did this for
over forty years. As stake president or bishop, he probably gave
himself this calling.
An incident in October of 1890 is illustrative of the concern
he had concerning the young people of his stake. He was always
solicitous of having them have their social activities in a proper
environment. He and Martha traveled to South Montezuma and stayed
with George Adams. A cowboy dance was held there that night, and
it lasted until nearly daylight. The music was performed with a
mouth organ and played by a cowboy. All of the young members of
the Church -- boys and girls -- were there. But because of the
environment associated with wild cowboys and their whisky, Francis
felt that the girls should have better protection. After that
incident, it was decided that permission must be given by the
bishop or three high councilman before a party or dance could be
held. The party also had to be supervised by these priesthood
leaders. Two years earlier at another Church social, cowboys had
threatened Francis and even fired into the air some volleys from
their six shooters. It was disconcerting to the women folk.
However, no more incident took place and the cowboys left peaceful-
ly. Francis felt somewhat relieved and blessed.
Francis took an interest in politics. He belonged to the
Democratic Party. On 7 November 1893 during that general election,
he was the chairman of elections for Bluff precinct. He stated
that there were 16 votes: 8 Democratic and 8 Republican. He also
mentioned that if all of the Democrats had attended "we would have
had a majority of 3 or 4 votes." This statement obviously reveals
his political preference.
On 16 January 1894 the town was privileged to hear a phono-
graph record play. Francis was impressed with what the great
inventor, Thomas Edison, had accomplished with this splendid
invention. Francis's life included the most significant times of
pioneer life; and now, towards the end of his life, some of the
modern machines that would be part of people's lives during the
twentieth century were just becoming ideas to the minds of the
During a trip to Mancos for supplies in November of 1894,
Francis and Martha received the word from Francis's nephew F. B.
Hammond that Hannah had died. He had ridden all night, a distance
of about ninety miles, with two changes of horses. This news was
truly a shock to Francis. Because of the cold, the trip to Mancos
had taken considerable strength from him. Francis and Martha had
arrived at Bishop Hall's about 7:00 p.m. in the evening, and they
were on their way back to Bluff by 1:00 a.m. the next morning.
Attending them on this journey was Samuel and his wife, John's wife
and baby, and William Halls and Moiselle. One of William Hall's
horses became lame and Samuel had some trouble with his wagon, but
at Gellets' Trading Post they were able to meet Freeman Nielson.
He had fresh horses for them. They arrived in the evening and was
greeted by Mary Hammond Sorensen and her husband Andrew Phillip
Sorensen. They had driven from Monticello. Also there to greet
them were Joseph and F. B. Hammond. Hannah was twenty-one years
The next year Francis was appointed as a probate judge. 149
Francis was not inexperienced in these matters. He had been a
justice of the peace years earlier when he lived in Ogden.
It seems that wherever Francis went, he encouraged the
building of respectable meeting houses. At the corner stone
ceremony for a new meeting house in Moab, Francis describes an
. . . A curious circumstance occurred while the
ceremony was taking place. At the close of President
Halls remarks a gentleman stranger rode up and cried out
$5.00 donation for the Angel. He remained on his horse
out side the fence and at the close of the remarks he
cried out $10.00 and at the close of the dedicatory
prayer he raised his hat and cried out "Praise God $50.00
for Angel, call and get the check." He asked if we would
receive it. I politely bowed to him and said, yes Sir,
and thanked him. At first I thought he was insulting us
as I had been talking about the Angel Moroni . 150
On 23 February 1895 Elder Brigham Young Jr. visited Bluff and
dedicated the new structure. It cost $3,900.00 and took two years
to build. It was not as grand, however, as the one that Francis
had left in Huntsville a few years before.
The State Constitutional Convention
There was another significant event for which Francis took
part in 1895. It was the state's constitutional convention. At
this convention, Francis took sides opposite the great Church
scholar, B. H. Roberts. Elder Roberts, a Democrat, argued against
women suffrage. However, years later, Elder Roberts in his A
Comprehensive History of the Church, seemed to have a different
view. 151 Francis gave a speech in favor of women's suffrage, and
referred to an earlier speech many years before by Mary Jane. She
gave this speech at a mass meeting in Ogden. The intent was to
petition the territorial legislature to grant this right of
suffrage to women. It was in February of 1870 that the Utah
Territorial legislature unanimously gave this franchise to the
women of Utah. Now twenty- five years later, this right of women
was again being debated in regards to the new state constitution,
and Francis expressed his views on the subject at this historic
On his seventy- third birthday, Francis received a surprise
party. Brother Wayne Redd came to pick him and Martha up for
dinner at Sister Mary Jones'. However, Brother Redd, instead of
taking Francis and Martha to the Jones', he took them over to the
old meeting house. To Francis's surprise, the old meeting house
was lit up, and inside almost every member of the ward turned out
to help him celebrate his birthday. He was impressed with the
immense amount of food that had been prepared for this occasion.
His daughters Mary Sorensen and Maybell Fielding came from
neighboring communities, some distance away to be with him. It was
a good time of feasting and dancing. Even at seventy- three,
Francis loved a good party.
Francis's journal entry for 6 January 1896 was interesting.
It was the day that Utah became a state. This entry reveals more
about of his personality.
Sunrise Flag hoisted, guns fired and general bells
ringing and all the noise possible was made. Honor of
the day as Inaugural Day for the officers of the New
State to be sworn in and enter upon their official
duties. At 12 noon all the noisy demonstration repeated
and people assembled in the new meeting house where a
nice program was carried out consisting of speeches by F.
A. Hammond, P. D. Lyman, L. H. Redd Jr., L. H. Redd Sr.
A reading on Liberty by Miss Elliott, songs by the
children led by Bro. Decker. Recitation, Lillian Decker.
Bp. Jens Nielson Chaplain, Jos. Barton Marshall of the
day. Evening a grand ball and elegant supper enjoyed by
all. Thanks to our Heavenly Father, Grover Cleveland and
the great Democratic party for Statehood for Utah. 152
In addition to the excitement of statehood for Utah, Francis
had a full year in 1896. During his annual General Conference
visit, he did considerable temple work for his family. He stayed
in Salt Lake well into May. One of the highlights of this activity
was when he and Moselle were proxy for the temple work for his
parents. After this extensive temple work, he made quick trip back
to San Juan for his stake conference. Then he returned again with
his wife and daughters, Moselle and Amelia to do some more temple
work. He also participated in the first State Legislature. This
trip also included a visit to Huntsville, where he honored Mary
Jane and Alice at their grave-sights. He enjoyed the renewing of
acquaintances and the visiting old friends that he had known for so
The Move to Moab
On 23 September 1896, the river flooded the town of Bluff.
There was such destruction, that there was some question as to
whether the saints should remove from the town. The flood was
devastating enough that it probably would take as much work to make
the needed town and private property repairs as when the town was
first settled. About ten months later, Francis, Bishop Jens
Nielson, L. H. Redd, Joseph Barton, Hansen Bayles, and K. Jones met
with the First Presidency of the Church, Joseph F. Smith, George Q.
Cannon, and Franklin D. Richards in the First Presidency's office,
along with Francis M. Lyman, Heber J. Grant, Charles W. Penrose,
and William B. Preston. The purpose of this meeting was to
consider whether the saints should begin moving away to other
areas. The decision was left up to the First Presidency.
Francis was returning home to Bluff from Moab with Martha on
19 October 1898 when he had a near tragedy. Francis described the
My wife and I returning from Moab to Bluff. Arose
early and got breakfast. Hitched up and rolled out for
Monticello. Passed a wagon and cart, two men near hole
in the Rock. When we came to the road leading on to the
rock shelf going down to Hatch Wash, here we travel over
a smooth rock surface for over a mile or more, a little
down hill grade. Just at the turn where the road runs
more western my off mare Nell switched the line under her
tail and immediately commenced to buck, rear and kick
about. The second kick she succeeded in kicking the
lines from my hands. By this time the team was on a dead
run on a smooth rock road with a steep ledge of rock on
the upper side. They ran for a few rods only when the
buggy collided with a stout ceder tree and fell a second
time and plunged over a rock ledge some 4 ft. high with
in the deep ravine or dry wash. We escaped with only a
few bruises on my wife's knee. I was so thankful when I
saw we were so miraculously saved I fairly wept for joy.
The horses were skinned and bruised up. The two men we
had passed on the road soon came along and helped us
right the buggy and we patched things up as best we could
and returned back to Moab where we could have the outfit
In May of 1899 Francis moved from Bluff to Moab. Prior to
Francis's move from Bluff to Moab, the town gave him and Martha a
farewell party at the meeting house. The whole ward was present,
and a program, dinner, and dancing was enjoyed by all who attended.
Twenty-one dollars was given to Francis for a rocking chair. He
purchased one in Salt Lake the next time he made a trip there.
In Moab he purchased a seven room cottage that had eight acres
of ground, an orchard, and a alfalfa field. Attached with it were
two cows, a pig, 160 chickens, various household gifts, a washing
machine, books, and bedding. Francis liked the way his home and
land plot were organized. In his own words; "It is very conve-
niently arranged, pasture for the cows and horses right adjoining
the corral, with living water in it. Orchard and lucern field
found separate, door yard all fenced in , large chicken run fenced
in with chicken wire fence. A great many cottonwood trees are
growing round the place making it nice and shady." On 21 June
1899 Francis paid C. J. Elliott $1,500.00 for his home and
property. It was a very hot June day -- 107 degrees. Elliott
moved out a few days later.
He liked the town of Moab along with its climate and oppor-
tunities, but he was concerned about the influence on the town of
"Whiskey Street. This street had three saloons. However, he was
pleased with his purchase; and after he settled, he seemed even to
enjoy the replanting a patch of corn in his garden with the help of
his two grandsons, Frank Sorenson and Boyd Hammond. They were
about seven years old at the time. It must have been a pleasant
time as he joshed with them, Francis making the furrows and hills,
and his two grandsons dropping the corn kernels into the hills, and
then Francis using his hoe or foot to cover up the corn with soil.
Maybe that was not the precise routine of their operations; but
whatever the routine, Francis gave them grandfatherly advice and
enjoyed their company.
The last two years of his life he continued to make his rounds
about the stake. For a seventy-seven year old man, this was quite
a job. Francis's health was failing him some. In fact, the First
Presidency were considering releasing him. 154 However, he must
have shown some reluctance at this suggestion and continued to
perform his duties, even at this late age. In fact, he faithfully
continued making his visits to keep the stake in order. On one
trip on horseback on 1 June 1899 while on his way to Bluff, after
drinking a cup of milk for his supper, he took a quilt and blanket
from his saddle role and made him a bed on a hay stack.
Francis was concerned about some of the bad influences in
Moab. He was upset when some boys stole most of his early peaches
along with breaking many of the limbs of the trees. These boys
also stole some of his chickens. He was distressed that many of
the town's girls were associated with the burglars. Francis felt
that there needed to be a reformation. According to Francis,
Moab's population was about 400, and about 200 were members of the
Church. He was troubled that too many Mormon girls had married
During these late 1890' s, the Church's missionaries were
receiving considerable persecution. F. B. Hammond Jr. and George
Adams were mobbed in Sweetwater Tennessee. Francis showed his
irritation, not only that his grandson should be so treated, but
that this treatment was due largely to the false reports coming
from the "sectarian priests" at Salt Lake and circulated through
the Salt Lake Tribune.
Cattle thieves and rustlers were part of the challenges of the
diminishing but still spotted presence of the frontier environment.
' Francis was worried about this type of crime. He related an
incident that happened in May of 1900 when cattle thieves shot and
killed Jessie Tyler, the county sheriff. Francis was close to this
problem, having been associated with the Utah cattle industry for
many years. His grandson, West Hammond, describes the life of a
A cowboy's job is without doubt the toughest job of
the day. It extends throughout the entire year. At the
crack of dawn, the boys or men get up, one goes out to
find the horses for the day's ride, the other builds a
fire, makes some red hot, black coffee, cooks some bacon
and makes some pancakes. No dinner is ever had. The men
saddle their horses, put on their boots, jumpers, chaps
and spurs, their guns in the holder, tie a rope on their
saddle, maybe a raincoat or jacket, and then they are off
for the day. When the cows have had calves during the
past few days, the calves and the cows must be rounded up
and gathered, maybe 50, and the calves are to be branded.
A fire is set, the branding irons are heated red hot, and
a calf is roped, drug close to the fire and one man burns
a certain mark into the hide of the calf. When the red-
hot iron hits the calf, he or she will bellow and the
mother of the calf will bellow out and sometimes start to
attack the man, but is prohibited by a horseman. One
day, when my older brother was helping to do this job, he
said to himself, "I think I will see just how honest
Father is, " so with the red-hot iron in his hands which
our father [Fletcher Bart let Hammond] was standing close
by said, "I think I will put our brand on this calf." In
a loud voice, Father said, "You will not put our brand on
that calf, you know damn well whose calf that is and so
you put the right brand on it ! " Branding calves reminds
me of the cowman who went into the cafe for a steak fry.
When the waiter brought the steak out it was really rare.
The cowman said, "Take that meat back and cook it. I
hurt it worse than that when I brand them. nlS5
The End of an Era
Francis made a significant entry in his journal on 6 September
51 years ago today I arrived in Great Salt City, as
it was called then. Consisting of 3 sun dried adobe
forts, each 40 rods square, containing about 1500
inhabitants, desolate indeed was the whole country, dry
and parched was the soil. Oh! What changes have I lived
to see, towns and cities are seen filled with happy
people for 1800 miles, from Canada to Mexico and East to
West for some 500 miles all built up by the, or nearly so
Latter Day Saints. 156
The entry sums up his whole life. He was part of this great
colonization — part of the Church's western empire building. His
life ended just as the empire building was coming to an end. From
then on the empire would continue to develop, but the major
building had been completed.
During the last two weeks of his life, Francis took a trip
around the stake. He was accompanied by his fourteen year-old
grandson, Dilworth Hammond, who was his teamster. Dilworth took
care of his needs and assisted him. Francis's age had finally
caught up to him.
Francis held a conference in Monticello and Verdure and then
went on to Bluff for a another conference on 13 November. Brother
Wayne Redd was with them riding horse back. He held another
conference in Mancos. They stayed there two days. Then on 20
November Francis, accompanied by President Halls, after an early
breakfast, he and President Halls went to Fruitland, New Mexico.
This leg of the journey took two days. They arrived in Fruitland
at 2:00 p.m. and began the conference which continued to the end of
the next day.
From Fruitland, they set out on 24 November for Fairpoint, New
Mexico which is about thirty- five miles up the San Juan River. The
road to Fairpoint took them through Farmington which is located on
the Mainus River and is rich orchard country. The road continued
on across the river on a bridge, up the San Juan on the north side,
passed through a ranch on the bottom land until they came to
Bloomfield. Here they forded the river at the ferry sight. A
ferry was available there during high water.
The party arrived at Brother Tinney's about 3:00 p.m. They
rested a short time, hitched up two teams and went up the river
another four miles. This was through about 5,000 acres of
developed county. A nine mile canal was the source of water. It
was at this time a developing area. Land was cheap and there was
plenty of wood and coal for fuel. The climate was good, and there
was sufficient forage for sheep and cattle.
On 25 November 1900 the party breakfasted at J. S. Tenney's.
Then they met with the saints at 10:00 a.m. They had dinner at
Brother Gellispie's and discussed with some of the brethren about
the organization of a ward. Then they met again at 2:00 p.m. and
organized a new ward to be called the Hammond Ward. James S.
Deaton was sustained as Bishop with John S. Tenny and William White
as counselors. After the meeting, they drove to Brother Tenny' s,
and upon entering his yard, they drove under a wire cloths line.
The buggy top struck the top of the line and frightened the horses.
They ran off with the buggy's occupants -- Francis and William
Halls -- threw the buggy around, and both Francis and William were
thrown out of the buggy. William was uninjured, but Francis hit
his head against an adobe granary with a rock foundation. The
injury was severe, and he lived another day and a half.
After his death Francis was taken first to Ogden by way of the
Rio Grande Western Railroad where his funeral was held in the Ogden
Tabernacle and then to Huntsville and buried next to Mary Jane and
Alice, his two polygamous wives.
Beginning at Thompson's Springs where Francis's remains were
first placed on the train, friends were waiting at the various
other stops along the way to Ogden. They were there to show their
respect for a friend, pioneer, leader, and devoted member of the
Church. When he arrived in Ogden, a large throng of people were
there to show their last respects to this old pioneer. He was
taken by hearse to the tabernacle. Following the hearse were
numerous carriages, followed by other mourners on foot. In
attendance from Salt Lake the were the following general authori-
ties: Apostle John Henry Smith, Elders George Reynolds, B. H.
Roberts, Rulon S. Wells, John T. Caine, W. W. Riter, J. F. Nebeker,
and J. Kimball. It was a crowded tabernacle. President Shurtliff,
president of the Ogden Stake, conducted the funeral. Speakers
included President Midleton, John Henry Smith, Hon. D. H. Peery.
From Ogden, he was taken to Huntsville where another short
service was held before he was buried beside Mary Jane and
Thus ended the life of a pioneer who not only participated
directly in the founding of an empire, but his life also symbolized
that great westward migration. His decease came along with the
demise of the pioneer era.
1. Andrew Jensen, Latter-day-saint Biographical Encyclopedia,
"Western Epics", Vol 1, p. 352.
2. B. H. Roberts, A Comprehensive History of the Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints, Vol V, Chpts CXXXI - CXXXV.
3. Peter Matthiessen, Men's Lives, Random House, Inc., New York,
1988, Chpt 1. This is a book about the lives of some of the
fisherman of Long Island.
4. Preston Nibley, "Francis A. Hammond Adventurous Youth, " "Francis
A. Hammond Becomes Prospector, " and "Francis A. Hammond Colonizer-
missionary, " a series of three articles in "The Church Section" of
The Deseret News, February 1953 issues.
5. West Hammond, Life and Memories of West Hammond
6. Howard I. Chapelle, The History of American Sailing Ships,
Bonanza Books, New York, p 258.
7. Conway B. Sonne, "Under Sail to Zion, " Ensign, July 1991.
8. Sharon Sigmond Shebar, Whaling for Glory!, Julian Messner, New
9 . Shebar , op. cit.
10. Orson F. Whitney, History of Utah, pp 152-153.
11. Shebar, op. cit.
12. Our Hammond Roots, Branches and Leaves, Compiled and edited by
Fern D. Ellis, p. 86.
13. The World Book Encyclopedia, 1961, Vol, 16, p. 75.
14. Sonne, op. cite.
15. Whitney gives him the title of Steerer where Nibley said he was
a boatswain. Probably, both titles were right. He performed the
duties of a boatswain as well as a steerer.
16. Whitney, op. cite. p. 152.
17. Nibley, op. cite.
18. West Hammond, op. cit.
19. Francis A. Hammond, "In Early Days, My Introduction to
Mormonism, " as published in The Juvenile Instructor, 1896.
22. Roberts, op. cit Vol III, Chpt. LXX,
24. Francis A. Hammond, "My Introduction to Mormonism," as pub-
lished in the Juevnile Instructor, June - August 1894.
28. Roberts, Op. cit., chpt. LXXI .
29. Roberts, op. cite. Chpt. LXXXVII.
3 . Hammond , op. cit .
31. Hammond, Ibid.
32. Roberts, op. cit. Vol. 3, p. 36. Elder Roberts quotes Augusta
Joyce Crocheron, a passenger on the Brooklyn. "She had done her
duty well and had borne her burdens without complaint. But she was
old and showed unmistakable signs of weakness and decay."
3 3 . Hammond , op. cit.
34. Roberts, op cit., Vol. 3, Chs. LXXI, LXXIX, p. 201.
35. Bancroft's History of California, vol VI. p. 56 as quoted in
Robert's history, vol 3, p. 364.
3 6 . Hammond , op. cit.
3 7 . Hammond , op. cit.
39. Ibid .
40. Hammond, Ibid.
41. Roberts, op. cit., Vol 3, p. 3 64
42. Hammond, op. cit.
43. Roberts, op. cit., Vol 3, p 367.
44. Ibid., Vol 3, p. 366.
45. Ibid. , Vol 3, p. 367.
46. Ibid., Vol 3, p. 369.
47. Hammond, op. cit.
49. Roberts, op. cit., Vol 3, p. p. 378.
50. The World Book Encyclopedia, Vol G, p. 255, 1960.
51. Hammond, op. cit.
52. Roberts, op. cit., p.p. 331 - 332.
5 3 . Hammond , op. cit.
54. Ephesians 2:19
55. West Hammond, Life and Memories.
56. Levi Edgar Young, Founding of Utah, p.p. 299-300.
57. "Education in Utah," Improvement Era, Vol 16. This quote was
given in the article from Maria Dilworth Nebeker's autobiography.
59. Whitney's op. cit., also see An Enduring Legacy, p.p. 87-88.
60. Roberts, op. cit., Vol 3, p. 336.
61. Ibid. p. 303.
62. Hammond, Diary, Francis A. Hammond Collection, Brigham Young
University Library and Historical Department of the Church of Jesus
Christ of Latter-day Saints.
63. Roberts, op. cit., p.p. 457-474.
64. Isaiah chpt 11; D&C Sec 1.
65. Roberts, op. cit, Vol 3., p. 386.
66. Ibid. , Vol 4, p. 68.
67. The World Book Encyclopedia, Vol 8, p. 106.
68. R. Lanier Britsch, Unto the Islands of the Sea, A History of
the Latter-day Saints in the Pacific, 1986, Deseret News Press,
chpt 6 .
69. Francis refers to him in his journal as "the little one. When
the other children came, he called them collectively "the little
70. Roberts, op. cit., Vol 4, p. 69.
71. Preston Nibley, "Francis A. Hammond Colonizer-Missionary,"
Church Section of The Deseret News, February 1953.
72. Hammond, Diary, op. cit.
74. Cannon, My First Mission, as quoted in Britsch, op cit, p. 114
7 5 . Hammond , op cit .
76. Britsch, op cit, p. 100.
77. Hammond, op cit 7 July 1852.
78. Ibid. Sunday, 25 July 1852.
79. Ibid., Wednesday, 28 July 1852.
80. Britsch, op cit, p. 107
8 1 . Hammond op cit,
82. Joseph Spurrier, Sandwich Islands Saints, p. 79.
83. Ibid. 1 December 1852 entry.
84. Hammond, op cit
85. Britsch, op. cit.
86. Cannon's My First Mission, as quoted by B. H. Roberts, Vol 4,
p. 69 of his history.
87. I Timothy 6:12.
88. George Q. Cannon, My Mission, as quoted in An Enduring Legacy,
89. Mary Jane Dilworth Hammond, Journal, Francis A. Hammond
Collection, Brigham Young University Library.
90. George Q. Cannon and Francis A. Hammond to R. M. Armstrong,
Minister of Public Instruction, pertaining to lists of marriages
performed by Mormon Elders in Hawaii. Hammond Collection, opt cit.
91. William Farrar correspondence, 1851-50 (1 volume, typescript),
missionary to Sandwich Islands; includes F.A. Hammond letters,
Historical Department of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
Saints. See also Henry Phinilias Richards papers plus correspon-
dence with F. A. Hammond, Historical Department of the Church of
Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
92. Britsch, op. cit, p. 109
93. Ibid. p. 113.
94. R. Lanier Britsch, Aforamona, The Mormons in Hawaii., p. 39
95. Britsch, op cit., p 41.
96. Spurrier, op. cit., p 77.
97. Whitney, op. cit., Vol IV, p. 660
98. Roberts, op. cit., Vol 4, chpts 102 - 112.
102. This information was given to the author by his mother, Hannah
Marie Sorensen Adamson, who was given the information by her
mother, Mary Alice Hammond Sorensen, daughter of Francis A. Hammond
and Alice Howard.
103. Hammond, op. cit., "My Responsibilities Grow."
104. Richard S. Van Wagoner, Mormon Polygamy, a History, Signature
Books, Salt Lake City, 1989, chpts 8 & 9.
105. Mary Alice Hammond Sorensen, daughter of Alice Howard and
Francis A. Hammond, "A Brief History of Biography of My Mother, "
106. An Enduring Legacy, page 89
107. Whitney, op. cit., Vol IV, p. 326
108. Levi Edgar Young, Founding of Utah, p. 300.
109. Legacy, op. cit.
110. Mary Alice Hammand Sorensen, op. cit.
111. Britsch, op. cit., chptrs 7, 8.
112. Britsch, Moramona, p. 64
113. "This Week in Church History: Elder Directed to Buy Lai
Plantation," The Deseret News Church Section, 28 January 1967,
114. Hammond Collection op. cit.
Britsch, op. cit. pp 64-75.
118. West Hammond, Life and Memories of West Hammond, Salt Lake
City, Utah, 1990, privately published.
119. Britsch, op. cit.
120. Hammond, op. cit.
121. Britsch, op. cit.
122. Hammond, Diary, op. cit.
123. Mary A. H. Sorensen, op. cit.
124. Donald D. McKay, Memories of Huntsvill and Its People, p. 26,
Donald D. McKay, Huntsville, Utah.
125. McKay, op. cit., p. 48.
126. Hammond, op. cit.
127 . Laverna Newey, Remember My Valley.
128. Salt Lake City, Utah, May 1926, Edward H. Anderson.
129. Roberts, op. cit., Vol V, p. 247.
130. Whitney, op. cit., Vol II, pp 245-246,
131. Whitney, Ibid p. 247, Vol II.
132. Biographical Encyclopedia, Jensen, "Western Epics" Vol 1, pp
133. Interview with the author.
134. Mary Alice Hammond Sorensen op. cit.
136. La Verna Newey, Remember My Valley, p 129 and Donald D. McKay,
The founding of Huntsville, p 18, 1960.
137. The Deseret News, 32:409
140. The Deseret News, 6 Feb. 1883, tells of Francis describing the
1883 winter of being colder than he had experienced even in the
arctic regions. That winter experienced temperatures close to 60
degrees below zero.
141. Huntsville Home Coming Week, p 16.
142. Ibid. p. 18
143. Ogden Daily Herald, Fri. Sept. 12, 1884.
144. Ogden daily Herald, November 3, 1883.
145. Hammond, op. cit.
146. Ogden Daily Harold, 8 Jan. 1985
147. Hammond , op. cit.
148. Roberts, op. cit., Vol VI, pp 45 - 51.
149. Letter, Washington D. C, May 18, 1895, Hammond Collection,
150. Hammond, op. cit.
151. Roberts, op. cit. Vol V, pp 323-326.
152. Hammond, op. cit.
154. Letter from President Wilford Woodruff, December of 1895,
Francis A. Hammond Collection Brigham Young University Library and
Historical Department of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day
155. West Hammond, The Life and Memoirs of West Hammond, pp 23-24.
156. Hammond , op. cit.
157. Ogden Standard Examiner, 30 Nov, 1 Dec, and 3 Dec 1900.
47th Congress 95
61st birthday 87
A Party 102
A remarkable experience 13
Accident . 7
Activities in San Francisco 15
Hannah Marie Sorensen 63
Adultery . .......... 42
Advance Party 90
Alice Howard 61
Ezra H 20
Mr. , chief mate 5
"my own sweet baby" 98
Anemas River 88
Ant i -bigamy Law 66
Apprenticeship 2, 6
Arctic Oceans 7
Arrival in Hawaii 34
Assets . 75
Back to Hawaii 68
Hi and Louise 70
Ezra T 65
Mr. , chief mate 6
Charles and Mary 70
Samuel ..... 14
Brannan' s further solicitations 15
Ann Dilworth 28
Brother Haskel 93
Captain James 14, 22
James B 59
Bueno Ward 91
Burnham Ward in Fruitland 91
Cabin boy 2
John T 95, 107
George Q 32, 52, 56, 61, 62, 103
Cape Horn 3
Caroline at Babylon 96
Carson Valley 21
Castle Valley route ..... 94
Central Pacific ....... 78
Cheese factory . 85
Chicago . 95
Chronometer 5, 6
Church Activities ..... 37
Church's general conferences 100
Mary Ellen 70
Co-operative store 85
Coasting trade 2
Coasting vessel 2
Captain James 31
Cottonwood Springs 57
Covered Wagon Journey ..... 33
Joseph B 94
Dedication of the Salt Lake Temple 96
Desire to Gather 18
Thomas ................ 69
Judge William W ............. 59
Durango, Colorado 88
Earl of Sandwich . 31
Echo Canyon 78
Edowment & Sealing 29
Elk and Blue Mountains 92
Elk Mountain Brand Cattle 94
End of an Era 105
Eye infection 43
Factory ships 2
Falkland Islands ..... . 3
A. S. . 93
Captain David 5
Elder 37, 42
William 32, 53, 54
Lt. James 12
Joseph M 93
Final Move 93
First child 30
First Home 29
First Missionaries to Hawaii 31
Captain Daniel Fitch 3
Fletcher married 86
Mr., "the seaman's chaplain" 9
Fort Bridger 60
Fort Leavenworth 59
Fort Supply 60
Fort Utah 30
Francis a blessing ..... 43
Francis purchased a whaleboat 55
Gathering Israel 31
Getting Established 24
Wlater Murray ..... 65
Gold fever 17
Gold Is Discovered in California 16
Goodyear Fort 22
Grand Island 28
Grand River 93
Heber J 103
Ephraim and Mary . 70
Green River 14
William 83, 92
Luella Adelaide 79
Amelia May 79
Captain S.S 96
Eliza Dilworth 79
F. B. Jr., mobbed 104
Fletcher Bartlett 55
Francis A., Jr 81
Francis Asbury 1
George Albert 61
George Albert, died 85
Hannah 1, 79
John F 43
John Fletcher 1
Joseph Heber 79
Lizzie Fontella 61
Lizzie Fontella, died 72
Mary Alice 79
Mary Caroline 1
Mary Jane Dilworth, died 82
Mary Jane Dilworth, first Relief Society President ... 83
Mary Moiselle 57
Maybell Ophelia 79
Samuel Smith 1,46
Sandord Bartlett 1
William Edmund 61
William Edmund, died 85
Hawaiian Zion 54
Captain Jeremiah 6
Henderson Cox 20
L. J 94
Martha Jensina Marcussen 82
Alice, died 79
Richard (father of Alice) 62
Humbolt River 22
Captain Jefferson 72
Huntsville Co-op Farm 85
Important Interview 23
Indaian affairs . 96
Indian affairs 96
Indian Ocean 6
Indian Troubles 30
Irrigation system 92
Joseph L 92
Mary Ann 62
Johnston's Army 60
Francis F 94
Journey to the Great Salt Lake 20
Sister, midwife 46
Killing a wolf 22
Kings Court 71
Kula, Maui 32
Lahaina, Maui 7
James and Harriet 70
Philip B 32
Sister, wife of President Lewis 48
Line tubs 4
William S 72
Living quarters 3
Long Island 1
Lumelienceing. ■ 46
Francis M 103
Manassas ..... 89
Mancos Ward in Coloarado 91
Martha Jesina Marcussen Holmes .......... 82
Martial law 59
Mary Jane Dilworth 27
U Go.ii.Ii6 U. w6 £it*tif«tiiititi»iii«titi O j
Orlando F. . . 12
Missionary Life of the Hammonds 35
Moab Ward 91
Monticello Ward 91
Mormon Battalion 12
Mormon Island 17
Thomas . 32
Niels C 83
Mountain Meadows 57
Move to Moab 103
Move to Ogden 60
Murray Gibson 65
Jonatana H. 40
Native houses 35
Nautical almanac 6
Nauvoo Temple 27
George 66, 68
J. F 107
Maria Dilworth 28
Marie Louise 70
New London . 3
New Meetinghouse 83
Norman Taylor's ferry 93
North Pacific V
Nu Bay 3,5
October conference of 1853 54
One thousand Indians 85
Palawai Valley 54
Charles W 103
Performing Marriages 53
Personage appeared at my tent door 18
hired boy 93
Petty officer 6
Pioneering in Huntsville 73
Plantation was called "Laie." 69
Francis takes a second wife 61
Parley P 23
Pray according to the Priesthood 41
Prayer meeting according to the order 45
President over Maui and Lanai 51
President Shurtliff . 107
William B 103
Protestant influence 31
Purchase of a House 45
Alfren and Mildres 70
Lemual • • 92
Relief Society 83
George • 107
Rice • . 42
Elder Charles C. . . . 32
Franklin D 103
Richfield . 89
Richmond, Virginia . 5
Rio de Janeiro 5
W. W 107
William D 96
X\l UCiS • o • • o • • e • • • • a e s • ■ • e ■ • • • • e • • £i -J
B. H. 101, 107
O. P 59
Sag Harbor 2
Salvage ..... 5
Samuel married 86
San Bernardino 56
San Juan Mission 88
San Luis Valley 88
San Pedro 33
Set apart for his mission 89
Seven hundred government wagon 18
Sextant . ..... 6
Ship Brooklyn 9
Sierra Mountains 20
Sister Lewis 48
Apostle John Henry 107
Elder Joseph F 65
Granny ...... 73
John Henry 107
Joseph F 103
Major Lot 60
President Silas S . 89
The Brig 3
Andrew Phillip 100
South Fort 24
Southern Ute 92
Spirit of the gathering 15
Standing guard 60
State Constitutional Convention .... 101
Steam pump 92
Sunday School 83
Sutter's Fort 16
Sweetwater Tennessee 104
J. S 106
iricimss ••#•••••••••••••« •••••••••••w
The sad tale 21
Thompson Springs 93
Threshing beans 24
Tragedy Spring 21
Transcontinental Roailroad 77
Truckee River 21
Union Pacific 78
Utah Peace Commission 60
Utah Removal Bill 95
Utah War 58
Valley of Ephraim 54
Vinegar Hill 91
C. B 91
Wards had the same schedule 91
Washington D. C. and a Family Visit 95
Webber Ranch 94
Weber County Land and Livestock Company 86
Weber River bridge 86
Danniel H 60
Rulon S 107
General Chauncy W 60
Western Standard 56
Whale hunt 4
Whaling vessels .2
White Mesa 92
Wildest scenes I ever witnessed 16
William Adams 91
John S 32
William and Emma 70
Francis Asbury Hammond
Pioneer and Missionary
Nathan W. Adamson, Jr.
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